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Saturday, January 16, 2016

Rudrata and his Knight’s move verse: An interesting feature

Rudrata and his Knight’s move verse: An interesting feature

Rudrata has given the following verse as an example of Knight’s move picture-verse:
सेना लीलीलीना नाली लीनाना नानालीलीली ।
नालीनालीले नालीना लीलीली नानानानाली ॥ १५ ॥
If we enter this into half of a chess board ( 8columnsx4 rows) serially one character in each cell, the knight’s move sequence of steps which visits each cell once and once only results in another meaningful verse. This sequence is cryptically given in a meaningless verse by the commentator Namisadhu (See my previous blog at http://gssmurthy.blogspot.in/). Rudrata’s verse is shown entered in a 8x4 chess board below:
se-1
naa-30
lii-9
lii-20
lii-3
naa-24
naa-11
lii-26
lii-16
naa-19
naa-2
naa-29
naa-10
lii-27
lii-4
lii-23
naa-31
lii-8
naa-17
lii-14
le-21
naa-6
lii-25
naa-12
lii -18
lii-15
lii-32
naa-7
naa-28
naa-13
naa-22
lii-5

The numeral in each cell is the serial number in the knight’s move sequence.
In this particular example given by Rudrata the knight’s move sequence gives the same verse, which in general, for a Knight’s Move Verse, is not true.  Verses constructed by Bhoja and Vedanta Desika yield different meaningful verses.
It is also to be noted that Rudrata uses only 4 distinct akshara’s in his verse.
It is natural to investigate if his use of only 4 distinct aksharas is connected with the Knight’s Move sequence yielding the same verse. It indeed turns out that in order that the Knight’s move sequence yield the same verse, there cannot be more than 4 distinct aksharas in the verse.
We set up a Table of equality where the 2 serial cell-numbers in a row have to be the same akshara as follows:

Main verse
Knight's move verse
Cell No.
Cell No.
1
1
2
11
3
5
4
15
5
32
6
22
7
28
8
18
9
3
10
13
11
7
12
24
13
30
14
20
15
26
16
9
17
19
18
25
19
10
20
4
21
21
22
31
23
16
24
6
25
23
26
8
27
14
28
29
29
12
30
2
31
17
32
27
The above Table of Equality leads to the interesting result that
1.   the following cells have to have the same akshara:
2,11,7,28,29,12,24,6,22,31,17,19,10,13,30.

2.   The following cells have to have the same akshara:
3,5,32,27,14,20,4,15,26,8,18,25,23,16,9,

3.   Cell no.1 and Cell No.21 can have distinct aksharas.
Rudrata’s verse adheres to the above criteria where cell No.1 contains akshara ‘se’, cell No.2,11 etc contain akshara ‘naa’, cell No.3,5 etc contain akshara ‘lii’ and cell no.21 contains akshara ‘le’.

As a matter  of curiosity when a condition is imposed that the Knight’s move verse be the reverse of the main verse, it turns out that all the cells have to have the same akshara which of course is trivial.

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Saturday, January 9, 2016

Rudrata's knight's move verse

Rudrata’s Knight’s move Verse

Rudrata’s Kavyalankara 5th Chapter 15th verse which reads as follows is a knight’s move verse.
सेना लीलीलीना नाली लीनाना नानालीलीली ।
नालीनालीले नालीना लीलीली नानानानाली ॥ १५ ॥
 Namisadhu the commentator, after explaining the meaning of the verse, gives a cryptic mnemonic verse in his commentary which reads as follows:
कशझेनागभटाय तथखेवेञराघबे ।
षजेथाढेपचेमेठे दोणसछलडेफङे ॥
He further says, “Write this verse over “सेनाली---“ verse serially each letter over  its corresponding letter. Then following the alphabetical order of the letters in the mnemonic verse you can get the knight’s move verse.”
The cryptic verse of Namisadhu has no meaning and contains each of the Sanskrit consonants from क to स once and only once. (There is apparently an error in the mnemonic verse, which has occurred while printing or copying manuscript. It reads थ instead of ध and that leads to double occurrence of थ and missing of ध.) Vowels attached to  the consonants are just there to suit the anushtup metre and have no value or meaning.
Following Namisadhu’s explanation I have placed the corrected mnemonic verse over Rudrata’s verse in a Table. For clarity, Rudrata’s verse is in Roman script, while Namisadhu’s mnemonic is in Devanagari script.  Alphabetical serial number of the letter is also given.
क-1
श-30
झे-9
ना-20
ग-3
भ-24
टा-11
य-26
se
naa
lii
lii
lii
naa
naa
lii
त-16
ध-19
खे-2
वे-29
ञ-10
रा-27
घ-4
बे-२३
lii
naa
naa
naa
naa
lii
lii
lii
ष-31
जे-8
था-17
ढे-14
प-21
चे-6
मे-25
ठे-12
naa
lii
naa
lii
le
naa
lii
naa
दो-18
ण-15
स-32
छ-7
ल-28
डे-13
फ-22
ङे-5
lii
lii
lii
naa
naa
naa
naa
lii

If we follow the alphabetical order it clearly gives the knight’s move. Rudrata has simplified the complexity of the puzzle by adopting only  4 syllables and this also leads to the interesting result of knight’s move verse being the same as the original verse.

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Friday, January 1, 2016

Bhartrhari'e Shatakas-43

भर्तृहरिशतकत्रयी -४३
मज्जत्वम्भसि यातु मेरुशिखरं शत्रूञ्जयत्वाहवे
वाणिज्यं कृषिसेवने च सकला विद्याः कलाः शिक्षतु ।
आकाशं विपुलं प्रयातु खगवत्कृत्वा प्रयत्नं परं
नाभाव्यं भवतीह कर्मवशतो भाव्यस्य नाशः कुतः ॥ नी-९८  ॥
अ: (मनुजः) अम्भसि मज्जतु, मेरु-शिखरं यातु, शत्रून् आहवे जयतु, वाणिज्यं कृषि-सेवने सकलाः विद्याः कलाः शिक्षतु, परं प्रयत्नं कृत्वा खगवत् विपुलम् आकाशं प्रयातु । इह अभाव्यं न भवति, कर्म-वशतः भाव्यस्य नाशः कुतः?
Let a person drown in water; let him go up the peak of mountain Meru; let him conquer enemies in battle; let him learn commerce, agriculture, art of serving others, all branches of knowledge and arts, let him fly over the sky like a bird after struggling much. But here (in this world) what is not predestined to happen will not happen and how can what has to happen as a result of karma get destroyed?

वने रणे शत्रुजलाग्निमध्ये
महार्णवे पर्वतमस्तके वा ।
सुप्तं प्रमत्तं विषमस्थितं वा
रक्षन्ति पुण्यानि पुराकॄतानि ॥  नी-९९ ॥
अ: वने रणे शत्रु-जल-अग्नि-मध्ये महा-अर्णवे पर्वत-मस्तके वा सुप्तं प्रमत्तं विषमस्थितं वा
पुराकॄतानि पुण्यानि रक्षन्ति ।
Good deeds done in the past will protect a person whether he is sleeping, intoxicated or in adversity in a forest, battle ground, amidst enemies, water or fire or on the top of a mountain.

भीमं वनं भवति यस्य पुरं प्रधानं
सर्वो जनो स्वजनतामुपयाति तस्य ।
कृत्स्ना च भूर्भवति सन्निधिरत्नपूर्णा
यस्यास्ति पूर्वसुकृतं विपुलं नरस्य ॥ नी-१०० ॥
अ: यस्य नरस्य पूर्व-सुकृतम् अस्ति, तस्य भीमं वनं प्रधानं पुरं भवति, सर्वः जनः स्वजनताम् उपयाति, कृत्स्ना भूः सन्निधि-रत्न-पूर्णा भवति ।
For a person who has acquired good deeds in the past a frightening forest becomes a prominent city, all people get attached to him like relatives, the whole earth becomes full of treasure and gems.
॥ इति सुभाषितत्रिशत्यां नीतिशतकं सम्पूर्णम् ॥
End of Nitishatakam
--
 प्रोद्यत्प्रौढप्रियङ्गुद्युतिभृति विकसत्कुन्दमाद्यद्द्विरेफे
काले प्रालेयवातप्रचलविलसितोदारमन्दारधाम्नि ।
येषां नो कण्ठलग्ना क्षणमपि तुहिनक्षोददक्षा मृगाक्षी
तेषामायामयामा यमसदनसमा यामिनी याति यूनाम् ॥ शृ-९८ ॥
अ: प्रोद्यत्-प्रौढ-प्रियङ्गु-द्युति-भृति विकसत्-कुन्द-माद्यत्-द्विरेफे काले प्रालेय-वात-प्रचल-विलसित-उदार-मन्दार-धाम्नि येषां यूनाम् तुहिन-क्षोद-दक्षा मृगाक्षी क्षणम् अपि नो कण्ठ-लग्ना  तेषाम् यामिनी आयाम-यामा यम-सदन-समा याति ।
During a season which bears the lustre of ripe rising Priyangu (a plant), when the bumble bees are intoxicated by the blooming Kunda flowers, when beautiful Mandara flowers open up due to icy winds,  the young men who are not embraced by doe-eyed ladies who are capable of preventing cold spend hellish long nights.

चुम्बन्तो गण्डभित्तीरलकवति मुखे सीत्कृतान्यादधाना
वक्षःसूत्कञ्चुकेषु स्तनभरपुलकोद्भेदमापादयन्तः ।
ऊरूनाकम्पयन्तः पृथुजघनतटात्स्रंसयन्तोंऽशुकानि
व्यक्तं कान्ताजनानां विटचरितभृतः शैशिरा वान्ति वाताः ॥ शृ-९९ ॥
अ: कान्ताजनानां गण्डभित्तीः  चुम्बन्तो अलकवति मुखे सीत्कृतानि आदधानाः
वक्षःसु उत्कञ्चुकेषु स्तन-भर-पुलक-उद्भेदम् आपादयन्तः ऊरून् आकम्पयन्तः पृथु-जघन-तटात् अंशुकानि स्रंसयन्तः विट-चरित-भृतः शैशिराः वाताः व्यक्तं वान्ति ।
In winter winds clearly blow imitating life-loving persons by kissing the wall-like cheeks of lovely ladies, making slurping sounds at their faces having curly hair, creating goose bump at the breasts with the upper garment lifted up, shaking the thighs  and loosening the garment from the heavy hips.
  
केशानाकुलयन् दृशो मुकुलयन् वासो बलादाक्षिपन्
आतन्वन् पुलकोद्गमं प्रकटयन्नावेगकम्पं शनैः ।
वारंवारमुदारसीत्कृतकृतो दन्तच्छदान्पीडयन्
प्रायः शैशिर एष सम्प्रति मरुत्कान्तासु कान्तायते ॥ शृ-१०० ॥
अ: केशान् आकुलयन् दृशः मुकुलयन् वासः बलात् आक्षिपन् पुलक-उद्गमम् आतन्वन् शनैः आवेगकम्पं प्रकटयन् वारं वारम् उदार-सीत्कृत-कृतो दन्तच्छदान् पीडयन् प्रायः एषः शैशिरः मरुत् कान्तासु सम्प्रति कान्तायते ।
This wintry wind mostly acts as a beloved to beautiful ladies by disturbing the hair, closing the eyes, pulling the garment forcefully, creating goose bump, slowly making them tremble, creating beautiful slurping sound often and troubling the lips
॥ इति सुभाषितत्रिशत्यां शृङ्गारशतकं सम्पूर्णम् ॥
End of Srngarashatakam
--
हिंसाशून्यमयत्नलभ्यमशनं धात्रा मरुत्कल्पितं
व्यालानां पशवस्तृणाङ्कुरभुजस्तुष्टाः स्थलीशायिनः ।
संसारार्णवलङ्घनक्षमधियां वृत्तिः कृता सा नृणां
तामन्वेषयतां प्रयान्ति सततं सर्वे समाप्तिं गुणाः ॥ वै-९७ ॥
अ: हिंसा-शून्यम् अ-यत्न-लभ्यम् अशनं धात्रा व्यालानां मरुत्कल्पितम् अशनं, तृण-अङ्कुर-भुजः पशवः तुष्टाः स्थलीशायिनः । संसार-अर्णव-लङ्घन-क्षम-धियां नृणां सा वृत्तिः कृता ।
ताम् अन्वेषयतां सर्वे गुणाः सततं समाप्तिं प्रयान्ति ।
Violence-less food obtained without effort, food for serpents created by the creator as air, cattle are happy lying on the ground nibbling the sprouts of grass. That type of life is made for those capable of crossing the ocean of worldly life. All qualities culminate in such a life who seek it.

गङ्गातीरे हिमगिरिशिलाबद्धपद्मासनस्य
ब्रह्मध्यानाभ्यसनविधिना योगनिद्रां गतस्य ।
किं तैर्भाव्यं मम सुदिवसैर्यत्र ते निर्विशङ्काः
कण्डूयन्ते जरठहरिणाः स्वाङ्गमङ्गे मदीये ॥ वै-९८ ॥
अ: गङ्गा-तीरे हिमगिरि-शिला-बद्ध-पद्मासनस्य
ब्रह्म-ध्यान-अभ्यसन-विधिना योगनिद्रां गतस्य मम तैः सुदिवसैः यत्र ते जरठ-हरिणाः स्वाङ्गम् मदीये अङ्गे निर्विशङ्काःकण्डूयन्ते किं भाव्यम् ?
What is there to be accomplished in those good days when I am seated in the lotus posture on a rock of the Himalayas having reached sleep-lke deep meditation through the practice of meditating on Brahman when old deer rub their bodies against mine fear-lessly.

पाणिः पात्रं पवित्रं भ्रमणपरिगतं भैक्ष्यमक्षय्यमन्नं
विस्तीर्णं वस्त्रमाशादशकमचपलं तल्पमस्वल्पमुर्वी ।
येषां निःसङ्गताङ्गीखरणपरिणतस्वान्तसन्तोषिणस्ते
धन्याः सन्न्यस्तदैन्यव्यतिकरनिकराः कर्म निर्मूलयन्ति ॥ वै-९९ ॥
अ: येषां पाणिः पवित्रं पात्रं, भ्रमण-परिगतं भैक्ष्यम् अक्षय्यम् अन्नं, विस्तीर्णं वस्त्रम् आशादशकम् उर्वी अचपलं अस्वल्पम् तल्पम् , निःसङ्गता-अङ्गीकरण-परिणत-स्वान्त-सन्तोषिणः सन्न्यस्त-दैन्य-व्यतिकर-निकराः ते धन्याः कर्म निर्मूलयन्ति ।
Those blessed people whose hand is the holy vessel, whose food is obtained through wandering as alms, whose clothing is the vast ten directions, who are inwardly happy after having accepted the tenet of being detached, having left off hindrances such as covetousness uproot their Karmas.
  
मातर्मेदिनि तात मारुत सखे तेजः सुबन्धो जल-
भ्रातर्व्योम निबद्ध एव भवतामन्त्यः प्रणामाञ्जलिः ।
युष्मत्सङ्गवशोपजातसुकृतस्फारत्स्फुरन्निर्मल-
ज्ञानापास्तसमस्तमोहमहिमा लीये परब्रह्मणि ॥ वै-१०० ॥
अ: मातः मेदिनि ! तात मारुत ! सखे तेजः! सुबन्धो जल ! भ्रातः व्योम! भवताम् अन्त्यः प्रणाम-अञ्जलिः निबद्ध एव ।युष्मत्-सङ्ग-वश-उपजात-सुकृत-स्फारत्-स्फुरत्-निर्मल-
ज्ञान-अपास्त-समस्त-मोह-महिमा (अहं) परब्रह्मणि लीये ।
Dear mother Earth!, dear father Wind!, Dear friend Fire!, Dear relative Water! Dear brother Sky!, I submit my ultimate prostrations. I dissolve in the Brahman after having got rid of all the effects of delusions by acquiring the clear sparkling Knowledge due to the good deeds done as a result of my association with you.

॥ इति सुभाषितत्रिशत्यां वैराग्यशतकं सम्पूर्णम् ॥

End of Vairagyashatakam
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