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Saturday, September 28, 2013

Setubandham-3

सेतुबन्धम्-३
Poet pays his obeisance to Shiva:
णमह अ जस्स फुडरवं कण्ठच्छाआघडन्तणाणग्गिसिहम् ।
फुर‍इ फुरिअट्टहासं उद्धपडित्ततिमिरं विअ दिसाअक्कम् ॥ ५ ॥
[नमत च यस्य स्फुटरवं कण्ठच्छायाघटमाननयनाग्निशिखम् ।
स्फुरति स्फुरिताट्टहासमूर्धप्रदीप्ततिमिरमिव दिक्चक्रम् ॥]
Bow to (Shiva) whose burning eyes associated with the dark luster of the neck appear accompanied by the sound of gyration ( in his gyrations of tandava dance) like the horizon in a dark night brightened due to lightning accompanied by thunder. [ When Shiva gyrates during Tandava dance, gyration creates whirling sound like that of thunder and the lustrous eyes look like the horizon lit by lightning and accompanied by thunder in a dark night. The darkness of Shiva’s neck is compared with The darkness of night.]


Now is a reference to Shiva as ardhanarisvara:
वेव‍इ जस्स सविडिअं बलिउं मह‍इ पुलाआ‍इअत्थण‍अलसम् ।
पेम्मसहावविमुहिअं वीआवासगमणूसुअं वामद्धम् ॥ ६ ॥
[वेपते यस्य सव्रीडं वलितुं महति पुलकाचितस्तनकलशम् ।
प्रेमस्वभावविमुषितं द्वितीयावकाशगमनोत्सुकं वामार्धम् ॥]
(Bow to Shiva), whose left half (Parvati), whose breast is covered by horripilation due to shyness and fear, feels deceived of expressing her love (to him) as she tries to reach towards the right side(Shiva) during Shiva’s gyrations. [ As ardha narisvara, left half of Shiva is Parvati herself. When he gyrates the left half leans towards the right half with fear and shyness and feels deceived of expressing her love due to shyness and fear of being seen by others. As a consequence her breast is covered by horripilation. An involved imagery indeed!]

Describes the boisterous laughter of Shiva:
अस्स विलग्गन्ति णहं फुडपडिसद्दा दिसाअलपडिक्खलिआ ।
जोण्हाकल्लोला वि‍अ ससिधवलासु र‍अणीसु हसि‍अच्छेआ ॥ ७ ॥
[यस्य विलगन्ति नभः स्फुटप्रतिशब्दा दिक्तलप्रतिस्खलिताः ।
ज्योत्स्नाकल्लोला इव शशिधवलासु रजनीषु हसितच्छेदाः ॥]
(Bow to Shiva) whose punctuated boisterous laughter spreads towards the sky as it gets reflected from the horizon like the waves of moonlight on a bright night lit by the moon.


णट्टारम्भक्खुहिआ जस्स भडब्भन्तमच्छपह‍अजलर‍आ ।
होन्ति सलिलुद्धुमा‍इ‍अधूमाअन्तवडवामुहा म‍अरहरा ॥ ८ ॥ (आ‍इकुल‍अम्)
[नृत्यारम्भक्षुभिता यस्य भयोद्भ्रान्तमत्स्यप्रहतजलरयाः ।
 भवन्ति सलिलोद्ध्मापितधूमायमानवडवामुखा मकरगृहाः ॥]
(Bow to Shiva), at the start of whose dance oceans get disturbed by the terrified fishes while the fuming submarine fire looks like being excited by blowing.  

Speaks of the difficulty of work undertaken:
अहिणवरा‍आरद्धा चुक्कक्खलि‍एषु जिहडि‍अपरिट्ठवि‍आ ।
मेत्ति व्व पमुहरसि‍आ णिव्वोड्ढुं होइ दुक्करं कव्वकहा ॥ ९ ॥
[अभिनवराजारब्धा च्युतस्खलितेषु विघटितपरिस्थापिता ।
मैत्रीव प्रमुखरसिका निर्वोढुं भवति दुष्करं काव्यकथा ॥]
This story started by the young king (Pravarasena) with its slips and errors appropriately re-connected and corrected and centred on sentiments (rasa) is difficult to be carried on like friendship, associated with the discerning. [ Just as to maintain friendship with a discerning person requires course corrections and is not easy, creating this work needs vigilance to make appropriate corrections. The poet uses subtle श्लेष  to reinforce the simile.]  


Talks of benefits of good literary work:
परिवड्ढ‍इ विण्णाणं संभाविज्ज‍इ जसो विढप्पन्ति गुणा ।
सुव्व‍इ सु‍उरिसचरि‍अं किं तं जेण ण हरन्ति कव्वालावा ॥ १० ॥
[परिवर्धते विज्ञानं संभाव्यते यशोऽर्ज्यन्ते गुणाः ।
श्रूयते सुपुरुषचरितं किं तद्येन न हरन्ति काव्यालापाः ॥]
Is there any manner with which narration of a poetical work does not become attractive? It enhances knowledge, it brings fame, it enables acquiring noble qualities and it enables listening to the stories of noble persons.


इच्छाइ व धणरिद्धी जोव्वणलद्ध इव आहिआ‍इअ सिरी ।
दुःखं संभाविज्जै बन्धच्छाआइ अहिणवा अत्थगयी ॥ ११ ॥
[इच्छयेव धनऋद्धिः यौवनलब्धेवाभिजात्या श्रीः ।
दुःखं संभाव्यते बन्धच्छाययाभिनवार्थगतिः ॥ ]

It is with difficulty that well crafted verses get associated with lofty meaning just as gain in wealth get associated with desire for wealth and good heritage with the luster arising out of youth. [ Combination of well crafted verses with lofty meaning is as rare as getting wealth to meet ones desires or having the combination of youth and good heritage.]
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Saturday, September 21, 2013

Setubandham-2

सेतुबन्धम्-२
This verse refers to Krishna bringing Parijata tree to please his consort Satyabhama:
ओआहिअमहिवेढो जेण परूढगुणमूलतद्धत्थामो ।
उम्मूलन्तेण दुमं पारोहो व्व खुडिऒ महेन्दस्स जसो ॥ ४ ॥
(अवगाहितमहीवेष्टं येन प्ररूढगुणमूललब्धस्थाम ।
उन्मूलयता द्रुमं प्ररोह इव खण्डितं महेन्द्रस्य यशः ॥)
(You all bow to) Krishna, by whose action of up rooting the (Parijata) tree (for pleasing Satyabhama), the fame of Indra, which had surrounded the earth and whose stability was obtained by his practicing good qualities, was also torn asunder in the manner the roots of the tree were torn asunder.
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Saturday, September 7, 2013

Setubandham of Pravarasena

श्रीप्रवरसेनविरचितम्
सेतुबन्धम्
Setubandham ( also called Ravanavadhah ) is an epic composed in Maharashtri, one of the Prakrit languages, by King Pravarasena. This epic whose subject matter is the story of yuddhakanda of Ramayana  finds a mention in Kavyadarsa of Dandin, in Harshacharita of Bana and in Auchityavicharacharcha of Kshemendra, making it evident that Pravarasena lived earlier to these three renowned authors. There appear to be four kings by the name Pravarasena, the earliest of whom lived in the first century AD and the second one lived in the second century AD. Two of the four find a mention in Rajatarangini of Kalhana. It is not clear who among the four was the author of this epic. However scholars agree that his time could not be later than 5th century AD.
Ramadasa Bhupati has written a commentary “Ramasetupradipa” in Sanskrit on this epic. Based on this commentary, which has been published by Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, Varanasi, I propose to give a prose rendering in English along with Prakrit original and its shadow (छाया) in Sanskrit as a serial blog. My rendering in English is circumscribed by the Sanskrit commentary as I do not have any knowledge of Maharashtri.
प्रथमः आश्वासः (First canto)
The poet starts with an invocation to Vishnu, the slayer of Madhu:
णमह अवड्ढिअतुङ्गं अवसारिअवित्थ‍अं अणोणागहिरम् ।
अप्पलहुअपरिसह्णं अणाअपरमत्थपाअडं महुमहणम् ॥ १ ॥
[ नमतावर्धिततुङ्गम् अप्रसारितविस्तृतम् अनवनतगभीरम् ।
अप्रलघुकपरिश्लक्ष्णम् अज्ञातपरमार्थप्रकटम् मधुमथनम् ॥]
All of you bow to Vishnu, who destroyed the demon Madhu, who is tall yet never nurtured, who is broad yet never expanded, who is deep yet was never bent, who is subtle yet large and who is open yet whose real meaning is unknown.
Note: The poet juxtaposes apparently contradictory qualities of Vishnu, whom the poet considers as Brahman.  

The poet refers to the slaying of the demon Hiranyakashipu by Narasimha:
दणुएन्दरुहिरलग्गे जस्स फुरन्ते णहप्पहाविच्छड्डे ।
गुप्पन्ती विवलाआ गलिअ व्व थणंसुए महासुरलच्छी ॥ २ ॥
[दनुजेन्द्ररुधिरलग्ने यस्य स्फुरति नखप्रभाविच्छर्दे ।
व्याकुला विपलायिता गलित इव स्तनांशुके महासुरलक्ष्मीः ॥]
 As the nails (of Vishnu) smeared with the blood of Hiranyakashipu sparkled, it looked like the upper garment of Goddess of prosperity of the great demon (Hiranyakashipu) slipping away while she ran away in distress. [ White nails of Vishnu which were partly smeared with the blood of Hiranyakashipu looked like the upper garment of the goddess of prosperity of the demon slipping away from the body as she ran away in distress. This is in continuation of the first stanza and acts as an adjectival clause for Madhumathana(Vishnu). It is a poetic description of the luster of Hiranyakashipu fading away as Vishnu stuck his nails into his body.]

He refers to the exploit of Krishna killing a demon in the form of a bull.
पीणत्तणदुग्गेज्झां जस्स भुआ‍अन्तणिट्ठुरपरिग्गहिअम् ।
रिट्ठस्स विसमवलिअं कण्ठं दुःखेण जीविअं बोलीणम् ॥ ३ ॥
[ पीनत्वदुर्ग्राह्यं यस्य भुजान्तनिष्ठुरपरिगृहीतम् ।
अरिष्टस्य विषमवलितं कण्ठं दुःखेन जीवितं व्यतिक्रान्तम् ॥]
The life of the demon in the form of a bull whose neck, which could be held with great difficulty because of its girth, was harshly held between the shoulders of (Krishna) ebbed away with considerable pain. [ This verse also acts as an adjectival clause qualifying Madhumathana in verse 1.]
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