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Saturday, April 28, 2012

The World of Valmiki-21

The World of Valmiki-21
King and Leader (Continued)

कच्चिद्व्यपास्तानहितान् प्रतियातान्श्च सर्वदा ।
दुर्बलाननवज्ञाय वर्तसे रिपुसूदन ॥
कच्चिन्न लोकायतिकान् ब्राह्मणान्स्तात सेवसे ।
अनर्थकुशलाह्येते बालाः पण्डितमानिनः ॥
धर्मशास्त्रेषु मुख्येषु विद्यमानेषु दुर्बुधाः ।
बुद्धिमान्वीक्षिकीं प्राप्य निरर्थं प्रवदन्ति ते ॥
I hope you are vigilant about those who were expelled by you but have since returned and who are weak. I hope you do not interact with atheist Brahmins. Such persons who are immature, who pretend to be learned, who know wrong things wastefully argue using skills of logic while important treatises on dharma are available for reference.

वीरैरध्युषिताम् पूर्वमस्माकं तात पूर्वकैः ।
सत्यनामां दृढद्वारां हस्त्यश्वरथसङ्कुलाम् ॥
ब्राह्मणैः क्षत्रियैर्वैश्यैः स्वकर्मनिरतैः सदा ।
जितेन्द्रियैर्महोत्साहैः वृतामार्यैः सहस्रशः ॥
प्रासादैर्विविधाकारैः वृताम् वैद्यजनाकुलाम् ।
कच्चित्सुमुदितां स्फीतामयोध्यां परिरक्षसि ॥
कच्चिच्चैत्यशतैर्जुष्टः सुनिविष्टजनाकुलः ।
देवस्थानैः प्रपाभिश्च तटाकैरुपशोभितः ॥
प्रहृष्टनरनारीकः समाजोत्सवशोभितः ।
City of Ayodhya, which is unconquerable true to its name, full of elephants, horses and chariots and which has a strong City-gate has been ruled by our forefathers. Brave people have lived there. Brahmins, kShatriyas and Vaishyas in thousands who are engaged in their own activities and who have won over their senses, who are of full of zeal live there. It abounds in palaces of various shapes. It is full of well-read persons. Do you take good care of such Ayodhya which is expanding and is full of joy? Do men and women of the city which has hundreds of meditation centres, humming with people and whose elegance has been heightened by temples, watering houses and lakes enjoy themselves in social festivities? 

सुकृष्टसीमापशुमान् हिंसाभिः परिवर्जितः ॥
अदेवमातृको रम्यः श्वापदैः परिवर्जितः ।
परित्यक्तो भयैः सर्वैः खनिभिश्चोपशोभितः ॥
विवर्जितो नरैः पापैः मम पूर्वैः सुरक्षितः ।
कच्चिज्जनपदः स्फीतः सुखं वसति राघव ॥
कच्चित्ते दयिताः सर्वे कृषिगोरक्षजीविनः ।
वार्त्तायां संश्रितस्तात लोको हि सुखमेधते ॥
तेषां गुप्तिपरीहारैः कच्चित्ते भरणं कृतम् ।
रक्ष्या हि राज्ञा धर्मेण सर्वे विषयवासिनः ॥
कच्चित्स्त्रियः सान्त्वयसि कच्चित्ताश्च सुरक्षिताः ।
कच्चिन्नश्रद्दधास्यासां कच्चिद्गुह्यं न भाषसे ॥
Does the country side flourish with well cultivated fields abounding in cattle, being devoid of violence, having perennial source of water, devoid of wild beasts, graced by mines and where people live without any fear? Is the country side well protected by our forefathers free from wicked people? Are the farmers who live by agriculture and animal husbandry dear to you? My dear, the state will be prosperous only when they are taken good care of. Are you taking care of them by giving them protection and concessions? A king has to take care of everyone of his citizens lawfully. Do you console women and do they feel protected? I hope you do not take them into confidence and do not speak to them of secrets. 

कच्चिन्नागवनं गुप्तं कच्चित्ते सन्ति धेनुकाः ।
कच्चिन्नगणिकाश्वानां कुञ्जराणां च तृप्यसि ॥
कच्चिद्दर्शयसे नित्यं मनुष्याणां विभूषितम् ।
उत्थायोत्थाय पूर्वाह्ने राजपुत्र महापथे ॥
कच्चिन्न सर्वे कर्मान्ताः प्रत्यक्षास्तेऽविशङ्कया ।
सर्वे वा पुनरुत्सृष्टा मध्यमेवात्र कारणम् ॥
कच्चित्सर्वाणि दुर्गाणि धनधान्यायुधोदकैः ।
यन्त्रैश्च परिपूर्णानि तथा शिल्पिधनुर्धरैः ॥
आयस्ते विपुलः कच्चित् कच्चिदल्पतरो व्ययः ।
अपात्रेषु न ते कच्चित् कोशो गच्छति राघव ॥
Are the elephant-reserves well protected? Do you have milch cows in good number? I hope you are not satisfied with the number of female elephants and horses you own. Do you present yourself to the people in the royal roads daily getting up in the forenoon wearing ornaments? I hope you are not seen by the workers without any fear nor are they denied access to you. A via media is to be followed. Are your forts replete with cash, grains, water, armaments and machinery and are they replete with architects and archers? Is your income large and your expenditure less than that? Scion of Raghu, I hope your wealth does not go to the undeserving.  

देवतार्थे च पित्रर्थे ब्राह्मणाभ्यागतेषु च ।
योधेषु मित्रवर्गेषु कच्चिद्गच्छति ते व्ययः ॥
कच्चिदार्यो विशुद्धात्माऽऽक्षारितश्चोरकर्मणा ।
अपृष्टः शास्त्रकुशलैः न लोभाद्वध्यते शुचिः ॥
गृहीतश्चैव पृष्टश्च काले दृष्टः सकारणः ।
कच्चिन्न मुच्यते चोरो धनलोभान्नरर्षभ ॥
व्यसने कच्चिदाढ्यस्य दुर्गतस्य च राघव ।
अर्थं विरागाः पश्यन्ति तवामात्या बहुश्रुताः ॥
यानि मिथ्याभिशस्तानां पतन्त्यस्राणि राघव ।
तानि पुत्रपशून् घ्नन्ति प्रीत्यर्थमनुशासतः ॥
I hope your money is spent on account of worshipping of Gods, pleasing the manes, Brahmins, guests, warriors and friends. I hope a gentleman who is of pure mind and who is accused of stealing is nor punished simply due to avarice without being examined by those well versed in legal matters. O chief of men, I hope a thief who has been questioned in time whose guilt has been established is not let free due to avarice. I hope your learned ministers examine any case dispassionately between a rich person and one who is weak. For, tears of those who are wrongly accused destroy the sons and cattle of a king who rules for his own pleasure.

कच्चिद्वृद्धांश्च बालांश्च वैद्यमुख्यांश्च राघव ।
दानेन मनसा वाचा त्रिभिरेतैर्बुभूषसे ॥
कच्चिद्गुरूंश्च वृद्धांश्च तापसान् देवतातिथीन् ।
चैत्यांश्च सर्वान् सिद्धार्थान् ब्राह्मणांश्च नमस्यसि ॥
कच्चिदर्थेन वा धर्ममर्थं धर्मेण वा पुनः ।
उभौ वा प्रीतिलोभेन कामेन च न बाधसे ॥
कच्चिदर्थं च धर्मं च कामं च जयतां वर ।
विभज्य काले कालज्ञ सर्वान् वरद सेवसे ॥
कच्चित्ते ब्राह्मणाः शर्म सर्वशास्त्रार्थकोविदाः ।
आशंसन्ते महाप्राज्ञ पौरजानपदैः सह ॥
I hope you honour olden, boys and important physicians by the three means of donation, loving attitude and sweet words. I hope you pay obeisance to elders, old men, sages, Gods, guests, meditation halls of repute and Brahmins. I hope your wealth does not overwhelm your dharma or your dharma overwhelm your wealth. I hope neither of them gets overwhelmed by your avarice or carnal desire. I hope you attend to needs of wealth, dharma and carnal desire at their appropriate times. I hope Brahmins who are well versed in various branches of knowledge wish you well along with citizens and the rural folk.

नास्तिक्यमनृतं क्रोधं प्रमादं दीर्घसूत्रताम् ।
अदर्शनं ज्ञानवतां आलस्यं पञ्चवृत्तिताम् ॥
एकचिन्तनमर्थानां अनर्थज्ञैश्च मन्त्रणम् ।
निश्चितानामनारम्भं मन्त्रस्यापरिरक्षणम् ॥
मङ्गलस्याप्रयोगं च प्रत्युत्थानम् च सर्वशः ।
कच्चित्त्वं वर्जयस्येतान् राजदोषान्श्चतुर्दश ॥
दशपञ्चचतुर्वर्गान् सप्तवर्गं च तत्त्वतः ।
अष्टवर्गं त्रिवर्गं च विद्यास्तिस्रश्च राघव ॥
इन्द्रियाणाम् जयं बुद्ध्वा षाड्गुण्यं दैवमानुषम् ।
कृत्यं विंशतिवर्गं च तथा प्रकृतिमण्डलम् ॥
यात्रादण्डविधानं च द्वियोनी सन्धिविग्रहौ ।
कच्चिदेतान् महाप्राज्ञ यथावदनुमन्यसे ॥
I hope you avoid the following fourteen vices of a king, namely, atheism, untruth, anger, carelessness, procrastination, not appearing before the wise, laziness,  becoming enslaved to the senses, thinking about official matters alone, consulting people who are not in the know of matters of wealth, not starting a project which has been decided upon, not maintaining secrecy of what has been planned, not employing things that convey auspiciousness, and rising from ones seat to receive one and all. I hope you act appropriately in respect of the ten-some ( लोभ-क्रोध-आलस्य-असत्य-प्रमाद-भीरुत्व-अस्थिरत्व-मूढत्व-अनयत्व-अवमन्तृत्व), the five-some causes of enmity ( सापत्नं-वस्तुजं-स्त्रीजं-वाग्जातम्-अपराधजम्) , the four-some (साम-दान-भेद-दण्ड), the seven-some ( स्वामी-अमात्य-राष्ट्र-दुर्ग-कोश-बल-सुहृत्), the eight-some ( कृषि-वाणिज्य-दुर्ग-सेतु-कुञ्जर-बन्धन-खन्याकर-करादान-शून्यनिवेशन) and the three-some (प्रभुशक्ति-मन्त्रशक्ति-उत्साहशक्ति). I hope you take due note of three types of education ( त्रयी-वार्ता-दण्डनीति), the set of six qualities (सन्धि-विग्रह-यान-आसन-द्वैधीभाव-समाश्रय) to be acquired after conquering senses , the man-made and God-ordained calamities, bribing those who could be bribed (कृत्य-> अलब्धवेतनः लुब्धः मानी अवमानितः क्रुद्धः कोपितः अकस्मात्भीतः भीषितः), twenty types of persons with whom one should not negotiate ( बालः वृद्धः दीर्घरोगी ज्ञातिः बहिष्कृतः भीरुकः भीरुजनकः लुब्धः लुब्धजनः विरक्तप्रकृतिः विषयासक्तः अनेकचित्तमन्त्रः देवब्राह्मणनिन्दकः दैवोपहतकः दैवचिन्तकः दुर्भिक्षव्यसनोपेतः बलव्यसनसङ्कुलः अदेशस्थः बहुरिपुः  सत्यधर्मव्यपेतः ) the categories of subjects (अमात्याः राष्ट्रदुर्गाणि कोशो दण्डश्च), the methods of going against an enemy ( विगृह्य सन्धाय तथा सम्भूयाथ प्रसङ्गतः उपेक्ष्य चेति निपुणैः यानं पञ्चविधं स्मृतम्), the techniques of truce and war.


मन्त्रिभिस्त्वं यथोद्दिष्टैः चतुर्भिस्त्रिभिरेव च ।
कच्चित् समस्तैर्व्यस्तैश्च मन्त्रं मन्त्रयसे मिथः ॥
कच्चित्ते सफला वेदाः कच्चित्ते सफला क्रियाः ।
कच्चित्ते सफला दाराः कच्चित्ते सफलं श्रुतम् ॥
कच्चिदेषैव ते बुद्धिः यथोक्ता मम राघव ।
आयुष्या च यशस्या च धर्मकामार्थसंहिता ॥
यां वृत्तिं वर्तते तातो यां च नः प्रपितामहाः ।
तां वृत्तिं वर्तसे कच्चिद्या च सत्पथगा शुभा ॥
कच्चित् स्वादुकृतं भोज्यमेको नाश्नासि राघव ।
कच्चिदाशंसमानेभ्यो मित्रेभ्यः संप्रयच्छसि ॥२/१००/१२-७६॥
I hope you hold consultations with the concerned ministers either in groups of three or four in confidence. I hope your study of Vedas is fruitful and that your actions are fruitful. I hope your wives bear progeny and that your erudition bears fruit. I hope your thoughts are in line with what I have said, which will give you long life, fame and which has the components of dharma, finances and desire. I hope you follow the conduct of our father and forefathers which will lead you in the right path and brings you auspicious things. I hope you do not enjoy any delicious food all alone and that you share it with those who seek it.
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Saturday, April 21, 2012

The World of Valmiki-20

The World of Valmiki-20

3.0 Statecraft
Administration

King and Leader
सङ्ग्रामात् पुनरागम्य कुञ्जरेण रथेन वा ।
पौरान् स्वजनवन्नित्यं कुशलं परिपृच्छति ॥
पुत्रेष्वग्निषु दारेषु प्रेष्यशिष्यगणेषु च ।
निखिलेनानुपूर्व्याच्च पिता पुत्रानिवौरसान् ॥
शुश्रूषन्ते च वः शिष्याः कच्चित् कर्मसु दंशिताः ।
इति नः पुरुषव्याघ्रः सदा रामोऽभिभाषते ॥
व्यसनेषु मनुष्याणां भृशं भवति दुःखितः ।
उत्सवेषु च सर्वेषु पितेव परितुष्यति ॥
सत्यवादी महेष्वासो वृद्धसेवी जितेन्द्रियः ।
स्मितपूर्वाभिभाषी च धर्मं सर्वात्मना श्रितः ॥
सम्यग्योक्ता श्रेयसां च न विगृह्यकथारुचिः ।
उत्तरोत्तरयुक्तौ च वक्ता वाचस्पतिर्यथा ॥२//३९-४४॥
(Rama), while returning from a battle riding an elephant or in a chariot, he asks the citizens (he meets on the way)  in detail and from the beginning their welfare about their children, their sacrificial fires, their wives, their errand-runners and their disciples as if they are his kith. He, a tiger among men, asks us often, "Do your disciples serve you well and are they hurt (by bites etc.) while attending to their duties?". He becomes extremely sad when he learns of peoples' difficulties. Like a father he rejoices at all their festivities. He speaks truth, is a fine archer, attends to the old, has control over his senses, smiles before he speaks and follows dharma from his heart. He accomplishes beneficial acts and does not relish heated arguments. Like Brihaspati he is extremely good in repartee.

नास्य क्रोधः प्रसादश्च निरर्थोऽस्ति कदाचन ।
हन्त्येव नियमाद्वध्यान् न वध्ये न च कुप्यति ॥
युनक्त्यर्थैः प्रहृष्टश्च तमसौ यत्र तुष्यति ॥२//४७-४८॥
Neither his anger nor his benevolence goes waste any time. He does destroy those who ought to be destroyed and is never angry at a person who does not deserve to be destroyed. If he is pleased with a person he bestows him with riches.

कच्चिद्विनयसंपन्नः कुलपुत्रो बहुश्रुतः ।
अनसूयुरनुद्रष्टा सत्कृतस्ते पुरोहितः ॥
कच्चिदग्निषु ते युक्तो विधिज्ञो मतिमानृजुः ।
हुतं च होष्यमाणम् च काले वेदयते सदा ॥
कच्चिद्देवान् पितॄन मातॄः गुरून् पितृसमानपि ।
वृद्धांश्च तात वैद्यांश्च ब्राह्मणांश्चाभिमन्यसे ॥
इष्वस्त्रवरसंपन्नं अर्थशास्त्रविशारदम् ।
सुधन्वानमुपाध्यायं कच्चित्त्वं तात मन्यसे ॥
कच्चिदात्मसमाः शूराः श्रुतवन्तो जितेन्द्रियाः । 
कुलीनाश्चेङ्गितज्ञाश्च कृतास्ते तात मन्त्रिणः ॥
Do you honour your priest (son of Vasishtha), who is endowed with humility, who is well read, who is not jealous of others and who is skilled in sacred rites? Have you assigned an intelligent and straight forward person who knows all the rites, who knows in time what has been offered to the fire and what is being offered to the fire, to attend to your sacred fires? Do you respect the divine beings, fathers, mothers, teachers who are equivalent to fathers, old men, physicians and Brahmins? Do you respect your teacher who is well versed in archery and who is an expert in matters of finance? Have you engaged people as brave as yourself, well versed in the Vedas, who have a good control over their senses, who have a good heritage and who understand the intentions behind facial expressions as your counselors?

मन्त्रो विजयमूलं हि राज्ञां भवति राघव ।
सुसंवृत्तो मन्त्रधरैरमात्यैः शास्त्रकोविदैः ॥
कच्चिन्निद्रावशं नैषीः कच्चित्काले प्रबुध्यसे ।
कच्चिच्चापररात्रेषु चिन्तयस्यर्थनैपुणम् ॥
काच्चिन्मन्त्रयसे नैकः कच्चिन्न बहुभिः सह ।
कच्चित्ते मन्त्रितो मन्त्रो राष्ट्रं न परिधावति ॥
कच्चिदर्थं विनिश्चित्य लघुमूलं महोदयम् ।
क्षिप्रमारभसे कर्तुं न दीर्घ्यसि राघव ॥
कच्चित्ते सुकृतान्येव कृतरूपाणि वा पुनः ।
विदुस्ते सर्वकार्याणि न कर्तव्यानि पार्थिवाः ॥
O, scion of Raghu, consultations are at the root of victory for kings. Are you surrounded by competent ministers who know how to hold consultations? I hope you do not sleep excessively and you get up well in time. I hope you think about finance matters late in the night. I hope you do not hold consultations with only one person nor with too many persons. I hope your secret consultations do not spread all over the state. After deciding what to do that starts in a small way bur yields big results, I hope you start quickly and do not delay the matter. I hope your vassals come to know of an action only when it is completed or is under completion and not before it is started.

कच्चिन्न तर्कैर्युक्त्या वा ये चाप्यपरिकीर्तिताः ।
त्वया वा तव वामात्यैः बुध्यते तात मन्त्रितम् ॥
कच्चित्सहस्रान् मूर्खाणां एकमिच्छसि पण्डितम् ।
पण्डितो ह्यर्थकृछ्रेषु कुर्यान्निःश्रेयसं महत् ॥
सहस्राण्यपि मूर्खानां यद्युपास्ते महीपतिः ।
अथवाप्ययुतान्येव नास्ति तेषु सहायता ॥
एकोऽप्यमात्यो मेधावी शूरो दक्षो विचक्षणः ।
राजानम् राजपुत्रं वा प्रापयेन्महतीं श्रियम् ॥
कच्चिन्मुख्या महत्स्वेव मध्यमेषु च मध्यमाः ।
जघन्यास्तु जघन्येषु भृत्याः कर्मसु योजिताः ॥
अमात्यानुपधातीतान् पितृपैतामहान् शुचीन् ।
श्रेष्ठान् श्रेष्ठेषु कच्चित्त्वं नियोजयसि कर्मसु ॥
I hope what you or your ministers have planned but has not been announced will not be known to others either through reasoning or through trickery. I hope you prefer one wise person to thousands of fools. In times of financial difficulties, one wise person can bring great glory. If a king has thousands, nay ten thousands of fools, no help is rendered by them. One minister who is intelligent, brave, efficient and capable can bring to the king or to the prince great wealth. I hope you entrust very important works to the best persons, works of medium importance to persons of medium calibre and the least important works to persons of low calibre. I hope you employ the best ministers who have passed tests of loyalty, who are of clean conduct and who are attached to us over generations for the best jobs.   

कच्चिन्नोग्रेण दण्डेन भृशमुद्वेजिताः प्रजाः ।
राष्ट्रे तवानुजानन्ति मन्त्रिणः कैकयीसुत ॥
कच्चित्त्वां नावजानन्ति याजकाः पतितं यथा ।
उग्रप्रतिग्रहीतारं कामयानमिव स्त्रियः ॥
उपायकुशलं वैद्यं भृत्यसन्दूषणे रतम् ।
शूरमैश्वर्यकामं च यो न हन्ति स वध्यते ॥
कच्चिद्धृष्टश्च शूरश्च मतिमान् धृतिमान् शुचिः ।
कुलीनश्चानुरक्तश्च दक्षः सेनापतिः कृतः ॥
बलवन्तश्च कच्चित्ते मुख्या युद्धविशारदाः ।
दृष्टापदाना विक्रान्ताः त्वया सत्कृत्य मानिताः ॥
O son of Kaikeyi, I hope enraged by severity of punishment, citizens do not show disrespect to your ministers in the country. I hope you are not despised for being too harsh in collecting taxes just as those engaged in sacrificial rites despise a fallen person or like women who despise lustful men who employ force. One who does not destroy a person who is well versed in diplomacy, who is clever and engages in finding faults with servants, who is brave and seeks wealth gets destroyed. I hope you have employed a person who is courageous, confident, intelligent, resolute, has integrity, is from a good family, is devoted to you and efficient as the Chief of the army. I hope your chiefs are of proven ability, skilled in warfare, brave and are suitably honoured by you.

कच्चिद्बलस्य भक्तं च वेतनं च यथोचितम् ।
सम्प्राप्तकालं दातव्यं ददासि न विलम्बसे ॥
कालातिक्रमाणाच्चैव भक्तवेतनयोर्भृताः ।
भर्तुः कुप्यन्ति दुष्यन्ति सोऽनर्थः सुमहान् स्मृतः ॥
कच्चित्सर्वेऽनुरक्तास्त्वां कुलपुत्राः प्रधानतः ।
कच्चित्प्राणान्स्तवार्थेषु सन्त्यजन्ति समाहिताः ॥
कच्चिज्जानपदो विद्वान् दक्षिणः प्रतिभानवान् ।
यथोक्तवादी दूतस्ते कृतो भरत पण्डितः ॥
कच्चिदष्टादशेऽन्येषु स्वलक्षे दशपञ्च च ।
त्रिभिस्त्रिभिरविज्ञातैः वेत्ति तीर्थानि चारकैः ॥
I hope you pay the soldiers their due share and salary in time and do not delay. If payment is delayed those who serve get enraged and hate you and that can be a great calamity. I hope all the nobles are devoted to you and are willing to lay down their lives for your sake. Bharata, I hope you have employed an intelligent and smart well-read native who is courteous and who correctly conveys the communication as your messenger. I hope you get to know the happenings in respect of 18 posts of your enemies and 15 posts of your side through a pair of three spies unknown to each other. [ According to Govindaraja, the eighteen posts are मन्त्रि (Counsellor), पुरोहित (Chief priest), युवराज (Crown Prince), सेनापति (Chief of the army), दौवारिक (In charge of palace security) , अन्तर्वंशिक (In charge of harem), कारागाराधिकृत (Jail superintendent), अर्थसञ्चयकृत् ( In charge of revenue collection), कार्यनियोजक ( In charge of publicity), प्राड्विवाक ( Prosecutor), सेनानायक ( pay disburser of the army), नगराध्यक्ष (Mayor), कर्मान्तिक (Pay disburser for the Civil departments), सभ्य ( Assembly manager), धर्माध्यक्ष (Civil Judge), दण्डपाल (Magistrate), दुर्गपाल ( Superintendent of hills and forests), राष्ट्रान्तपाल (Border security). The first 3 posts namely that of Counselor, Chief Priest and Crown Prince of ones own side are excluded from surveillance.] 
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