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Friday, January 27, 2012

The world of Valmiki-08

The World of Valmiki-08
1.8 Customs,rituals and beliefs
Horse sacrifice
प्रवर्ग्यं शास्त्रतः कृत्वा तथैवोपसदं द्विजाः ।
चक्रुश्च विधिवत् सर्वमधिकं कर्म शास्त्रतः ॥
अभिपूज्य ततो हृष्टाः सर्वे चक्रुर्यथाविधि ।
प्रातःसवनपूर्वाणि कर्माणि मुनिपुङ्गवाः ॥
ऐन्द्रश्च विधिवद्दत्तो राजा चाभिष्टुतोऽनघः ।
माध्यन्दिनं च सवनं प्रावर्तत यथाक्रमम् ॥
तृतीयसवनं चैव राज्ञोऽस्य सुमहात्मनः ।
चक्रुस्ते शास्त्रतो दृष्ट्वा तथा ब्राह्मणपुङ्गवाः ॥१/१४/४-७॥
After performing Pravargya and Upasada rites as per prescribed code Brahmins did all that needed to be done. Starting from the morning Savana (crushing of Soma plant) all the eminent sages performed all the rituals. Oblations to Indra were made and the pure Soma creeper was crushed and the midday Savana was duly made. Brahmin chiefs conducted the third Savana in the evening as per prescribed code.

कर्मान्तरे तदा विप्रा हेतुवादान् बहूनपि ।
प्राहुः स्म वाग्ग्मिनो धीराः परस्परजिगीषया ॥१/१४/१९॥
In between the rituals Brahmins put forward many arguments (in support of their contentions) and argued with each other to win them over to their view point.

प्राप्ते यूपोच्छ्रये तस्मिन् षद्बैल्वाः खादिरास्तथा ।
तावन्तो बिल्वसहिताः पर्णिनश्च तथापरे ॥
श्लेष्मातकमयस्त्वेको देवदारुमयस्तथा ।
द्वावेव तत्र विहितौ बाहुव्यस्तपरिग्रहौ ॥
कारितास्सर्व एवैते शास्त्रज्ञैर्यज्ञकोविदैः ।
शोभार्थं तस्य यज्ञस्य काञ्चनालंकृताभवन् ॥
एकविंशतियूपास्ते एकविंशत्यरत्नयः ।
वसोभिरेकविंशद्भिः एकैकं समल्ङ्कृताः ॥
विन्यस्ता विधिवत् सर्वे शिल्पिभिः सुकृता दृढाः ।
अष्टाश्रयः सर्व एव श्लख्ष्णरूपसमन्विताः ॥
आच्छादितास्ते वासोभिः पुष्पैर्गन्धैश्च पूजिताः ।
सप्तर्षयो दीप्तिमन्तो विराजन्ते यथा दिवि ॥
इष्टकाश्च यथान्यायं कारिताश्च प्रमाणतः ।
चितोऽग्निर्ब्राह्मणैस्तत्र कुशलैः शुल्बकर्मणि ॥
स चित्यो राजसिह्मस्य सञ्चितः कुशलैर्द्विजैः ।
गरुडो रुक्मपक्षो वै त्रिगुणोऽष्टादशात्मकः ॥
नियुक्तास्तत्र पशवस्तत्तदुद्दिश्य दैवतम् ।
उरगाः पक्षिणश्चैव यथाशास्त्रं प्रचोदिताः ॥
शामित्रे तु हयस्तत्र तथा जलचराश्च ये ।
ऋत्विग्भिः सर्वमेवैतन्नियुक्तं शास्त्रतस्तदा ॥
पशूनां त्रिशतम् तत्र यूपेषु नियतं तदा ।
अश्वरत्नोत्तमं तत्र राज्ञो दशरथस्य च ॥
कौसल्या तं हयं तत्र परिचर्य समन्ततः ।
कृपाणैर्विशशासैनं त्रिभिः परमया मुदा ॥
पतत्त्रिणा तदा सार्द्धं सुस्थितेन च चेतसा ।
अवसद्रजनीमेकां कौसल्या धर्मकाम्यया ॥
होताध्वर्युस्तथोद्गाता हस्तेन समयोजयन् ।
महिष्या परिवृत्त्या च वावातामपरां तथा ॥
पतत्त्रिणस्तस्य वपामुद्धृत्य नियतेन्द्रियः ।
ऋत्विक् परमसंपन्नः श्रपयामास शास्त्रतः ॥
धूमगन्धं वपयास्तु जिघ्रति स्म नराधिपः ।
यथाकालं यथान्यायं निर्णुदन् पापमात्मनः ॥
हयस्य यानिचाङ्गानि तानि सर्वाणि ब्राह्मणाः ।
अग्नौ प्रास्यन्ति विधिवत् समन्त्राः षोडशर्त्विजः ॥
प्लक्षशाखासु यज्ञानामन्येषाम् क्रियते हविः ।
अश्वमेधस्य यज्ञस्य वैतसो भाग इष्यते ॥
त्र्यहोऽश्वमेधः संख्यातः कल्पसूत्रॆण ब्राह्मणैः ।
चतुष्टोममहस्तस्य प्रथमं परिकल्पितम् ।
उक्थ्यं द्वितीयं संख्यातमतिरात्रं तथोत्तरम् ॥
कारितास्तत्र बहवो विहिताः शास्त्रदर्शनात् ।
ज्योतिष्टोमायुषी चैवमतिरात्रौ विनिर्मितौ ।
अभिजद्विश्वजिच्चैवमाप्तोर्यामो महाक्रतुः ॥
प्राचीं होत्रे ददौ राजा दिशं स्वकुलवर्धनः ।
अध्वर्यवे प्रतीचीं तु ब्रह्मणे दक्षिणां दिशम् ॥
उद्गात्रे वै तथोदीचीं दक्षिणैषा विनिर्मिता ।
हयमेधे महायज्ञे स्वयम्भूविहिते पुरा ॥१/१५/२०-४२॥
On the arrival of the time to erect yoopa pillars, six each of Bilva, Khadira and Palasa wood were erected. One pillar of Devadaru and two pillars of Sleshmataka are to be erected at a distance of two shoulder-length. Under the direction of the well-versed all these were appropriately arranged. The twenty one pillars of twenty one arms-length were each covered with cloth. They were beautifully shaped and strong, made by carpenters as per scriptural code. They had eight corners and were smooth. Covered with cloth and worshipped with flowers and sandal paste they looked like the Saptarishi constellation (great bear) in the sky. Bricks had been made as per prescribed measurement and with them the sacrificial altar had been constructed by those well versed in altar-architecture. Expert Brahmins placed the fire on the altar with due ceremony for king Dasaratha to worship. The fire resembled  Garuda in shape looking downward  facing East with wings of Gold. Having eighteen sacrificial pits, the size of the altar was three times the normal. Animals, snakes and birds had been tied to the pillars as per ritual code for being offered to particular Gods. The horse and marine animals that had been brought there were tied at that moment to the pillars. Three hundred animals were thus tied down to the pillars. The best of the horses of King Dasaratha was tied down to the pillar.
Kausalya made three marks with swords on the horse after consecrating the horse duly. With a calm mind Kausalya spent one night with the (dead) horse in order to gain merit. Hota, adhvaryu and udgaatr held the hands of the three queens. (Technically with  Mahishi, Parivrutti and Vaavaata- three types of wives). Rutvik who had control over his senses removed the fat from the dead horse and cooked it as per scriptural procedure. The king inhaled the vapours at prescribed instant and as per prescribed procedure thus obliterating his sins. All the sixteen Brahmin priests removed the parts of the dead horse and offered them into the fire. Whereas in other sacrifices the offering to the fire is placed on branch of Plaksha tree in Asvamedha sacrifice it is placed on cane mat. In Kalpasutra and Brahmanas three days of Savana (pressing of Somajuice) have been prescribed. The Savanas for the three days are called Jyottishtoma for the first day, Ukthya for the second day and Atiratra for the third day. Several rituals were conducted at the sacrifice as per injunctions. Jyotishtoma, Ayushtoma, two rounds of Atiratra, Abhijit, Viswajit and two rounds of Aptoryama were performed. The emperor who made his llineage flourish, gave away as dakshina(fee) the Eastern part  to the Hotru, the western to the Adhvaryu, the Southern to the Brahma and the Northern to the Udgatru. Such are the fees prescribed for Asvamedha the first of which was performed by Brahma the creator.
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Saturday, January 21, 2012

The World of Valmiki- 07

The World of  Valmiki- 07

1.6 Castes

स्वकर्मनिरता नित्यं ब्राह्मणा विजितेन्द्रियाः ।
दानाध्ययनशीलाश्च संयताश्च प्रतिग्रहे ॥१/६/१३॥
Brahmins who were engaged in their assigned duties had control over their senses, were busy with study and giving away and were constrained in accepting gifts.
 

क्षत्रं ब्रह्ममुखं चासीद्वैश्याः क्षत्रमनुव्रताः ।
शूद्राः स्वधर्मनिरतास्त्रीन्वर्णानुपचारिणः ॥१/६/१९॥
Kshatriya's followed Brahmins, Vaisya's followed Kshatriya's and Sudra's engaged in their duties served the (other) three castes.

दरिद्राय द्विजायाथ हस्ताभरणमुत्तमम् ।
कस्मैचिद्याचमानाय ददौ राघवनन्दनः ॥१/१४/५२॥
Rama gave away a valuable bangle to some poor Brahmin who was seeking a gift.

ये चेमे कठकालापा बहवो दण्डमाणवाः ।
नित्यस्वाध्यायशीलत्वान्नान्यत् कुर्वन्ति किञ्चन ।
अलसाः स्वादुकामाश्च महतां चापि सम्मताः ॥२/३२/१८-१९॥
Yonder are students carrying staff who study Katha and Kalapa versions of Veda. As they are busy with their studies they do not do anything else, are lazy and like sweets, yet are respected even by the great.

मेखलीनां महासङ्घः कौसल्यां समुपस्थितः ।
तेषां सहस्रं सौमित्रे प्रत्येकं सम्प्रदापय ॥२/३२/२१॥
A large  group of celibates is waiting on Kausalya. See that a thousand (coins) are given to each.

तत्रासीत् पिङ्गलो गार्ग्यस्त्रिजटो नाम वै द्विजः ।
क्षतवृत्तिर्वने नित्यं फालकुद्दाललाङ्गली ॥२/३२/२९॥
There was a Brahmin belonging to Garga lineage called Trijata, pale in colour who had strayed from his avocation and was carrying an axe, a spade and a plough.

शुश्राव जपतां तत्र मन्त्रान् रक्षोगृहेषु वै ।
स्वाध्यायनिरतांश्चैव यातुधानान् ददर्श ह ॥५/४/१३॥
In the residences of Rakshasa's he heard those Rakshasa's who were engaged in their studies and chanting mantra's.




1.7 Food and utensils

इत्युक्त्वोपायनं गृह्य मत्स्यमाम्समधूनि च ।
अभिचक्राम भरतं निषादाधिपतिर्गुहः ॥२/८४/१०॥
Guha, the chief of hunters brought to Bharata a gift and fish, meat and honey.

अन्याः स्रवन्तु मैरेयं सुरामन्याः सुनिष्ठिताम् ।
अपराश्चोदकं शीतं इक्षुकाण्डरसोपमम् ॥२/९१/१५॥
Let some streams bring maireya (a fermented drink made of date palms), others bring refined sura ( a fermented drink made of jaggery,flour etc.) and still others cold water as sweet as sugur-cane juice. 

आजैश्चापि च वाराहैः निष्ठानवरसञ्चयैः ।
फलनिर्यूहसंसिद्धैः सूपैः गन्धरसान्वितैः ॥
पुष्पध्वजवतीः पूर्णाः शुक्लस्यान्नस्य चाभितः ।
ददृशुः विस्मितास्तत्र नरा लौहीः सहस्रशः ॥२/९१/६६-६७॥
People saw there with amazement thousands of metal vessels filled with goat-meat, porc, flavoured soup with fruit-extracts, decorated with flower flags around white rice.

वाप्यो मैरेयपूर्णाश्च मृष्टमाम्सचयैर्वृताः ।
प्रतप्तपिठरैश्चापि मार्गमायूरकौक्कुटैः ॥
पात्रीणां च सहस्राणि स्थालीनां नियुतानि च ।
न्यर्बुदानि च पात्राणि शातकुम्भमयानि च ॥
स्थाल्यः कुम्भ्यः करम्भ्यश्च दधिपूर्णाः सुसम्स्कृताः ।
यौवनस्थस्य गौरस्य कपित्थस्य सुगन्धिनः ।
ह्रदाः पूर्णा रसालस्य दध्नः श्वेतस्य चापरे ॥
बभूवुः पायसस्यान्ये शर्करायाश्च सञ्चयाः ।
कल्कांश्चूर्णकषायांश्च स्नानानि विविधानि च ।
ददृशुर्भाजनस्थानि तीर्थेषु सरितां नराः ॥२/९१/७०-७३॥
The wells were full of Maireya drink. There were heated pots full of meat of deer,peacock and hen.
There were countless vessels of all shapes full of well garnished curds, fragrant butter-milk, tinged yellow and recently prepared and spiced butter milk, called Rasala and white curds. There were tanks full of payas, milk boiled with rice and sugar. On the steps to the rivers they saw crushed myrobalan, powdered fragrant substances and various articles filled in vessels used for bathing.

निषसाद गिरिप्रस्थे सीतां मांसेन छन्दयन् ।
इदं मेध्यमिदं स्वादु निष्टप्तमिदमग्निना ॥२/९६/१-२॥
He(Rama) sat on a plateau of the hill  cajoling Sita with meat saying, "This is sacred, this is sweet and this is well burnt in fire".

पानभूमिगतं हित्वा हैममासवभाजनम् ।
पात्राणि च महार्हाणि करकांश्च हिरण्मयान् ।
लेह्यानुचावचान् भक्ष्यान् मांसानि विविधानि च ॥५/१/२३॥
(Vidyadhara's left behind golden and very vauable vessels and vases in the area reserved for drinking and also various types of meat and pastes(लेह्य- that which is consumed by licking).

मृगाणां महिषाणां च वराहाणां च भागशः ।
तत्र न्यस्तानि मांसानि पानभूमौ ददर्श ह ॥
रौक्मेषु च विशालेषु भाजनेष्वप्यभक्षितान् ।
वराहवाध्रीणसकान् दधिसौवर्चलायुतान् ॥
शल्यान् मृगमयूरान्श्च हनुमानन्ववैक्षत ।
कृकलान् विविधान् छागान् शशकानर्धभक्षितान् ।
महिषानेकशल्यान्श्च मेषान्श्च कृतनिष्ठितान् ॥
लेह्यानुच्चावचान् पेयान् भोज्यानुच्चावचानपि।
तथाम्ललवणोत्तम्सैः विविधै रागखाण्डवैः।।५/११/१४-१९॥
In the drinks chamber, (Hanuman) saw meats of deer, buffaloes and pigs kept separately. The Great Monkey saw in large silver vessels un- consumed meat of boars, rhinoceros mixed with curds and salt (coming from a country "suvarchala") and half consumed well cooked meats of partridge, goats, rabbits, buffaloes and sheep. He saw all types of pastes (लेह्य), beverages and eatables along with sour and saltish Raga and Khandava (grape juice drinks).   
 

दिव्याः प्रसन्नाः विविधाः सुराः कृतसुरा अपि।
शर्करासवमाध्वीकपुष्पासवफलासवाः ॥
वासचूर्णैश्च विविधैः दृष्टास्तैस्तैः पृथक् पृथक् ।५/११/२०-२१॥
Divine and clear natural alcoholic drinks and artificial alcoholic drinks such as those made from sugar, honey, flowers and fruits spiced with various aromatic additives were seen (by Hanuman).

न मांसं राघवो भुङ्क्ते न चैव मधु सेवते ।
वन्यं सुविहितं नित्यं भक्तमश्नाति पञ्चमम्।५/३६/४१॥
Rama does not eat meat nor does he take honey. He eats forest grown cooked food daily in the fifth period of the day.
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Monday, January 16, 2012

The World of Valmiki_ 06

The world of Valmiki 06

1.4 Occupations

कर्मान्तिकान् शिल्पकारान् वर्धकीन् खनकानपि।
गणकान् शिल्पिनश्चैव तथैव नटनर्तकान् ॥१/१३/७॥
(Vasishtha ordered deployment of) workmen, sculptors, carpenters, diggers, astronomers, artisans, actors and dancers.

श्वः पुष्ययोगं नियतं वक्ष्यन्ते दैवचिन्तकाः ॥२/४/२१॥
Astrologers say that tomorrow is associated with Pushya star.

अथ चापि महाप्राज्ञ ब्राह्मणानां मया श्रुतम् ।
पुरा पितृगृहे सत्यं वस्तव्यं किल मे वने ॥
लक्षणिभ्यो द्विजातिभ्यः श्रुत्वाहं वचनं पुरा ।
वनवासकृतोत्साहा नित्यमेव महाबल ॥२/२९/८-९॥
While in my father's place long back I had been told by Brahmin fortun-tellers that I will have to live in a forest. I am all the time eager to live in a forest.

कन्यया च पितुर्गेहे वनवासः श्रुतो मया ।
भिक्षिण्याः साधुवृत्तायाः मम मातुरिहाग्रतः ॥२/२९/१३॥
As a yound unmarried girl I was told by a woman mendicant in front of my mother of forest life. 

अथ रात्र्यां व्यतीतायां प्रातरेवापरेऽहनि ।
वन्दिनः पर्युपातिष्ठन् तत्पार्थिवनिवेशनम् ॥
सूताः परमसंस्काराः मागधाश्चोत्तमश्रुताः ।
गायकाः श्रुतिशीलाश्च निगदन्तः पृथक् पृथक् ॥२/६५/१-२॥
After the night ended, early in the morning the next day panegyrists, well versed minstrels, knowledgeable bards and singers capable of discerning musical-notes arrived at the palace of the king each singing in his own style. 

ततस्तु स्तुवताम् तेषां सूतानां पाणिवादकाः ।
अपदानान्युदाहृत्य पाणिवादान्यवादयन् ॥२/६५/४॥
Then while the minstrels praised the king, hand clappers clapped hands eulodizing king's exploits.

अथ भूमिप्रदेशज्ञाः सूत्रकर्मविशारदाः ।
स्वकर्माभिरताश्शूरा: खनका यन्त्रकास्तथा ॥
कर्मान्तिकाः स्थपतयः पुरुषा यन्त्रकोविदाः ।
तथा वर्धकयश्चैव मार्गिणो वृक्षतक्षकाः ॥२/८०/१-२॥
Then those who new the terrain of the land, those who measured and aligned using a thread (surveyors), diggers who were adept in their work and were brave, mechanics, paid labourers, architects, engineers, carpenters, way-finders, lumbermen.

मणिकाराश्च ये केचित् कुंभकाराश्च शोभनाः ।
सूत्रकर्मविशेषज्ञाः ये च शस्त्रोपजीविनः ॥
मयूरकाः क्राकचिकाः वेधका रोचकास्तथा ।
दन्तकाराः सुधाकाराः ये च गन्धोपजीविनः ॥
सुवर्णकाराः प्रख्याताः तथा कम्बलकारकाः ।
स्नापकोष्णोदका वैद्या धूपकाः शौण्डिकास्तथा ॥
रजकाः तुन्नवायाश्च ग्रामघोषमहत्तराः ।
शैलूषाश्च सह स्त्रीभिः यान्ति कैवर्तकास्तथा ॥२/८३/१२-१५॥
Lapidarists, potters, weavers, weapon-makers, peacock-hunters, lumbermen, those who drill holes, polishers, ivory-workers, lime-makers, perfume sellers, goldsmiths, blanket-weavers, bath-givers, masseurs, physicians, fumigators, distillers, washermen, tailors and chiefs of villages and hamlets, dancers with their  womenfolk and boatmen all went with (Bharata)

ऊचुर्लक्षणिनो ये मां पुत्रिण्यविधवेति च ।
तेऽद्य सर्वे हते रामे ज्ञानिनोऽनृतवादिनः ॥६/४८/२॥
Experts in reading  physiognomy told me that I would have sons and would not be a widow. Now that Rama is dead those scholars have become liers.


1.5 Villagers and village life

एतौ दृष्ट्वा कृशौ दीनौ सूर्यरश्मिप्रतापितौ ।
अर्द्यमानौ बलीवर्दौ कर्षकेण सुराधिप ॥२/७४/२४॥
O Chief of Sura's, havine seen this pair of emaciated pathetic bullocks being beaten by the farmer, - - - .

ददर्श च वने तस्मिन् महतः सञ्चयान् कृतान् ।
मृगाणां महिषाणां च करीषैः शीतकारणात् ॥२/९९/७॥
In that forest he saw large heaps of dung cakes of deer and bisons made for (fighting) cold.

बभूव वसुधा तैस्तु सम्पूर्णा हरिपुङ्ग्वैः ।
यथा कलमकेदारैः पक्वैरिव वसुन्धरा ॥६/४/९१॥
The ground became full of the monkeys as if covered with ripe rice plants.

केदारस्येव केदारः सोदकस्य निरूदकः ।
उपस्नेहेन जीवामि जीवन्तीं यच्छृणोमि ताम् ॥६/५/११॥
By hearing that she is alive I live in the manner a waterless field lives by the subsidiary water flow from a field full of water.
- - - -

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

The world of Valmiki-05

The World of Valmiki_05

1.2 Hermitage

Vasishtha's hermitage

वसिष्ठस्याश्रमपदं नानापुष्पलताद्रुमम् ।
नानामृगगणाकीर्णं सिद्धचारणसेवितम् ।
देवदानवगन्धर्वैः किन्नरैरुपशोभितम् ।
प्रशान्तहरिणाकीर्णं द्विजसङ्घनिषेवितम् ।
ब्रह्मर्षिगणसंकीर्णं देवर्षिगणसेवितम् ।
तपश्चरणसंसिद्धैः अग्निकल्पैर्महात्मभिः ।
सततं संकुलं श्रीमद्ब्रह्मकल्पैर्महात्मभिः ।
अब्भक्षैर्वायुभक्षैश्च शीर्णपर्णाशनैस्तथा ।
फलमूलाशनैर्दान्तैः जितदोषैर्जितेन्द्रियैः ।
ऋषिभिर्वालखिल्यैश्च जपहोमपरायणैः ।
अन्यैर्वैखानसैश्चैव समन्तादुपशोभितम् ।
वसिइष्ठस्याश्रमपदं ब्रह्मलोकमिवापरम् ।
ददर्श जयतां श्रेष्ठो विश्वामित्रो महाबलः ॥ १/५१/२३-२८॥
Vishvamitra of immense strength saw the hermitage of Vasishtha, full of flowers, vines and trees, full of various types of animals, frequented by siddha's, charana's, deva's, gandharva's and kinnara's. There were various types of deer living peacefully. There were birds of all types. There were   brahmarshi's and devarshi's and great ascetics of recognized attainment who were like fire. There were ascetics who lived by consuming only water, those who lived by consuming only air, those who lived by fallen dry leaves, those who lived by consuming fruits and roots. There were vaalkhilya's and vaikhanasa's  who were engaged in meditation and oblations.

Rama's hermitage

पर्णशालां सुविपुलां तत्र संघातमृत्तिकाम् ।
सुस्तम्भां मस्करैर्दीर्घैः कृतवंशां सुशोभनाम् । ।
शमीशाखाभिरास्तीर्य दृढपाशावपाशिताम् ।
कुशकाशशरैः पर्णैः सुपरिच्छादितां तथा ।
समीकृततलां रम्यां चकार सुमहाबलः । । ३/१५/२१-२२॥
(Lakshmana), of immense prowess, constructed a large and beeautiful thatched hut of compacted mud, with good pillars and long supporting beams of bamboo, with a roof of branches of shami tree well covered by  leaves of kusha, kasha and reeds and with the ground levelled.


1.3 Ornaments and cosmetics

अलक्तरसरक्ताभौ अलक्तरसवर्जितौ ।
अद्यापि चरणौ तस्याः पद्मकोशसमप्रभौ ॥२/६०/१८॥
Her feet, which lacked the juice of red lac but had the radiance of the red lac had the glow of lotus buds.

कल्कांश्चूर्णकषायांश्च स्नानानि विविधानि च।
ददृशुर्भाजनस्थानि तीर्थेषु सरितां नराः ॥
शुक्लानंशुमतश्चापि दन्तधावनसञ्चयान् ।
शुक्लांश्चन्दनकल्कांश्च समुद्गेष्ववतिष्ठतः ॥
दर्पणान् परिमृष्टांश्च वाससांश्चापि सञ्चयान् ।
पादुकोपाहनहश्चैव युग्मानि च सहस्रशः ॥
आञ्जनीः कङ्कतान् कूर्चान् शस्त्राणि च धनूंषि च ॥२/९१/७४-७६॥
On the steps to the river people saw pastes, powders and concoctions for bathing and allso collections of tooth cleaners white and pointed, kept in vessels. They saw white sandal paste, cleaned mirrors, bundles of clothes, thousands of pairs of wooden sandals and leather footwear, eye-ointment, combs, brushes, armaments and bows. 


इदं दिव्यं वरं माल्यं वस्त्रमाभरणानि च ।
अङ्गरागं च वैदेहि महार्हं चानुलेपनम् ॥२/११८/१८॥
O Vaidehi, here are a a precious and divine garland, cloth and ornaments, cosmetic and precious body-paste.

सा वस्त्रमङ्गरागं च भूषणानि स्रजस्तथा ।
मैथिली प्रतिजग्राह प्रीतिदानमनुत्तमम् ॥२/११८/२१॥
Sita received the presents of affection like cloth, cosmetic, garlands and ornaments.

विहीनतिलकेव स्त्री नोत्तरा दिक् प्रकाशते ॥३/१६/८॥
The direction of North looks like a woman who does not have a tilak.

नाहं जानामि केयूरे नाहं जानामि कुण्डले ।
नूपुरेत्वभिजानामि नित्यं पादाभिवनदनात् ॥४/६/२२॥
I do not know the armlets nor ear-rings. I only know the anklets due to prostrating to her daily.

ददौ तस्य ततः प्रीतः स्वनामाङ्कोपशोभितम् ।
अङ्गुलीयमभिज्ञानं राजपुत्र्याः परंतपः ॥४/४४/१२॥
Feeling happy with him, Rama of extraordinary prowess, gave him the ring of the princess  as an identity.

सुकृतौ कर्णवेष्टौ च श्वदंष्ट्रौ च सुसंस्थितौ ।
मणिविद्रुमचित्राणि हस्तेष्वाभरणानि च ॥५/१५/४२॥
(I find her wearing) nicely made pair of karnaveShta ( ear ornament) and well placed shvadamshtra ( ear ornament perhaps shaped like canine teeth?) and ornaments on the arms which are decorated with gems and coral. 

हारनूपुरकेयूरपारिहार्यधरास्स्त्रियः ।५/१/२६॥
The vidyadhara women wore pearl necklaces, anklets, armlets and bangles.

उत्कर्षन्त्यां च रशनां क्रुद्धायां मयि पक्षिणि ।
स्रस्यमाने च वसने ततो दृष्टा त्वया ह्यहम् ॥५/३८/१७॥
You saw me while I got angry (at the crow) and held the girdle as the garment was sliding.

ततो वस्त्रगतं मुक्त्वा दिव्यं चूडामणिं शुभम् ।
प्रदेयो राघवायेति सीता हनुमते ददौ ॥५/३८/६९॥
Then Sita gave to Hanuman the divine Chudamani (pleat-jewel) after removing it from the cloth saying that it may be given to Rama.


- - - -

Wednesday, January 4, 2012

The World of Valmiki-04

Citizens of Ayodhya

तस्मिन् पुरवरे हृष्टा धर्मात्मानो बहुश्रुताः ।
नरास्तुष्टा धनैः स्वैः स्वैरलुब्धाः सत्यवादिनः ।
नाल्पसन्निचयः कश्चिदासीत्तस्मिन् पुरोत्तमे ।
कुटुम्बी यो ह्यसिद्धार्थोऽगवाश्वधनधान्यवान् ।
कामी वा न कदर्यो वा नृशंसः पुरुषः क्वचित् ।
द्रष्टुं शक्यमयोध्यायां नाविद्वान् न च नास्तिकः ।
सर्वे नराश्च नार्यश्च धर्मशीलाः सुसंयताः ।
मुदिताः शीलवृताभ्यां महर्षय इवामलाः ।
नाकुंडली नामकुटी नास्रग्वी नाल्पभोग्यवान् ।
नामृष्टो नानुलिप्ताङ्गो नासुगन्धश्च विद्यते ।
नामृष्टभोजी नादाता नाप्यनङ्गदनिष्कधृक् ।
नाहस्ताभरणो वापि दृश्यते नाप्यनात्मवान् ।
नानाहिताग्निर्नायज्वा न क्षुद्रो वा न तस्करः ।
कश्चिदासीदयोध्यायां न च निर्वृत्तसङ्करः ।
स्वकर्मनिरता नित्यं ब्राह्मणा विजितेन्द्रियाः ।
दानाध्ययनशीलाश्च संयताश्च प्रतिग्रहे ।
न नास्तिको नानृतको न कश्चिदबहुश्रुतः ।
नासूयको न वाशक्तो नाविद्वान् विद्यते तदा ।
नाषडङ्गविदत्रासीन्नाव्रतो नासहस्रदः ।
न दीनः क्षिप्तचित्तो वा व्यथितो वापि कश्चन ।
कश्चिन्नरो वा नारी वा नाश्रीमान्नाप्यरूपवान् ।
द्रष्टुं शक्यमयोध्यायां नापि राजन्यभक्तिमान् ।
वर्णेष्वग्रचतुर्थेषु देवतातिथिपूजकाः ।
कृतज्ञाश्च वदान्याश्च शूरा विक्रमसंयुताः ।
दीर्घायुषो नरास्सर्वे धर्मं सत्यं च संश्रिताः ।
सहिताः पुत्रपौत्रैश्च नित्यं स्त्रीभिः पुरोत्तमे ।
क्षत्रं ब्रह्ममुखं चासीद्वैश्याः क्षत्रमनुव्रताः ।
शुद्राः स्वधर्मनिरतास्त्रीन्वर्णानुपचारिणः ॥१/६/६-१९॥
In that great city the citizens were noble-minded and well-read. They spoke the truth, were not greedy and were content with their own earnings.There was nobody whose belongings were insignificant, who did not have a family, who had not achieved his desires and who did not possess wealth in the form of cattle, horses.money and grains. Nobody was lustful,cowardly or inhuman. It was not possible to see anybody who was not a scholar or who was an atheist. All men and women tread the path of virtue and were disciplined. By their cheerful disposition,they resembled the great ascetics in conduct and manners. One could not see in that city anybody who did not wear ear-rings,tiara,necklace and bracelet. Nobody was not besmeared, wore no perfume and was short of pleasures. There was nobody who was not a gourmet, a benefactor and who was not self-restrained. There was nobody who did not worship the sacred fires,did not perform vedic sacrifices. There was nobody who was a thief or vile or of impure origin. Brahmins had control over their senses and were devoted to their studies and their rituals. They were charitable and were chary of receiving gifts. There was nobody among them who was an atheist, untruthful, jealous, incapable or nor well-read. There was nobody among them who was not well-versed in the six sub-braches of the Vedas, who did not observe vows and who did not give away in thousands in charity.There was nobody who was in misery or of unstable mind. There was not a woman or man among the four castes who was not wealthy and did not possess good looks. One could not find anybody who was not devoted to the king and who did not worship Gods and respected guests. They were persons of gratitude, skilled in conversing, brave and full of valour. Following the path of righteousness and truth, all lived long lives along with their women, children and grandchildren. Kshatriyas followed Brahmins, while Vaishyas followed Kshatriyas. Sudras following their duties served the other three castes. 
 
Palace in Ayodhya


Kaikeyi's palace consisted of 8 enclosures.
स प्रविश्याष्टमीं कक्ष्यां राजानं दीनमातुरम् ।
पुत्रशोकपरिद्यूनमपश्यत् पाण्डरे गृहे ॥२/५७/२४॥




Dasaratha's consisted of at least 5 enclosures. Rama traversed three outer enclosures by chariot and walked across the last two.
राजपुत्रः पितुर्वेश्म प्रविवेश श्रिया ज्वलन् ।
स कक्ष्या धन्विभिर्गुप्ताः तिस्रोऽतिक्रम्य वाजिभिः ।
पदातिरपरे कक्ष्ये द्वे जगाम नरोत्तमः ॥१/१७/२०॥


स रामभवनं प्राप्य पाण्डराभ्रघनप्रभम् ।
तिस्रः कक्ष्या रथेनैव विवेश मुनिसत्तमः ॥२/५/५॥
Vasishtha traverses the first three enclosures of Rama's palace on the chariot.


- - - -

Sunday, January 1, 2012

The World of Valmiki-03


Lanka

अट्टालकशताकीर्णां पताकाध्वजशोभिताम् ।५//१७॥

 (Lanka) had hundreds of lofty mansions and was decorated by flags and banners.

जाम्बूनदमयैर्द्वारैः वैडूर्यकृतवॆदिकैः ।
वज्रस्फटिकमुक्ताभिः मणिकुट्टिमभूषितैः ।
तप्तहाटकनिर्यूहै राजतामलपाण्डुरैः ।
वैडूर्यकृतसोपानैः स्फाटिकान्तरपांसुभिः ।
चारुसञ्जवनोपेतैः खमिवोत्पतितैः शुभैः ।
क्रौञ्चबर्हिणसंघुष्टै राजहंसनिषेवितैः ।
तूर्याभरणनिर्घोषैः सर्वतः प्रतिनादिताम् ।
वस्वोकसारप्रतिमां तां वीक्ष्य नगरीं ततः ।
खमिवोत्पतितुंकामां जहर्ष हनुमान् कपिः ॥५//-१२॥

Hanuman, the monkey, felt happy looking at the city of Lanka which was like the capital of Kubera and which looked as if it was wanting to jump up to the skies. Lanka had Golden entrances with platforms made of lapis lazuli. The doors of the entrances were inlaid with diamond, quartz and pearl and the floors were made of gems. It had golden turrets with lapis-lazuli steps and interiors made of quartz. It had beautiful assembly halls. The city, frequented by swans, reverberated with the sounds of herons, peacocks, toorya pipes and ornaments. 


सिताभ्रसदृशैश्चित्रैः पद्मस्वस्तिकसंस्थितैः ।
वर्धमानगृहैश्चापि सर्वतः सुविभूषिता ॥५//७॥


Lanka shone brightly with different types of mansions like Padma,Swastika and Vardhamana which looked like white clouds.

Tirtha comments that padma,svastika and vardhamaana are names of royal residences of different shapes. He quotes: " चतुश्शाला चतुर्द्वारा सर्वतोभद्रसंज्ञिता।  पश्चिमद्वाररहिता मध्यावर्ता हयानना। दक्षिणद्वाररहिता वर्धमाना धनप्रदा। प्राग्द्वाररहिता स्वस्तिकाख्या पुत्रधनप्रदा।".  Govondaraaja comments that the details are in varahamihirasamhita.

लतागृहाणि चित्राणि चित्रशालागृहाणि च ।
क्रीडागृहाणि चान्यानि दारु पर्वतकानि च ॥५//३६-३७॥


Hanuman saw colorful bowers, picture galleries and sports pavilions and artificial mountains made of wood.

Fortification of Lanka


हृष्टप्रमुदिता लङ्का मत्तद्विपसमाकुला ।
महती रथसंपूर्णा रक्षॊगुणसमाकुला ॥
वाजिभिश्च सुसंपूर्णा सा पुरी दुर्गमा परैः ।
दृढबद्धकवाटानि महापरिघवन्ति च ॥
द्वाराणि विपुलान्यस्याश्चत्वारि सुमहान्ति च ।
तत्रेषूपलयन्त्राणि बलवन्ति महान्ति च ॥
आगतं परसैन्यं तु तत्र तैः प्रतिहन्यते ॥
द्वारेषु संस्कृता भीमाः कालायसमयाः शिताः ।
शतशो रचिता वीरैः शतघ्न्यो रक्षसां गणैः ॥
सौवर्णश्च महांस्तस्याः प्राकारो दुष्प्रधर्षणः ।
मणिविद्रुमवैदूर्यमुक्ताविरचितान्तरः ॥
सर्वतश्च महाभीमाः शीततोयवहाः शुभाः ।
अगाधा ग्राहवत्यश्च परिखा मीनसेविताः ॥
द्वारेषु तस्याः चत्वारः सङ्क्रमाः परमायताः ।
यन्त्रैरुपेता बहुभिर्महद्भिर्गृहपङ्क्तिभिः ॥
त्रायन्ते सङ्क्रमास्तत्र परसैन्यागमे सति ।
यन्त्रैस्तैरवकीर्यन्ते परिखासु समन्ततः ॥६//१०-१७॥

Lanka is a city of joy and pleasure. It is full of horses and rutting elephants. It is full of chariots. It has four huge fort-entrances provided with strong doors having strong locking bars. It has strong and huge stone-catapults. Armies of the enemies which reach there will be destroyed by them. Rakshasas have constructed at the entrances hundreds of Shataghnee's which are well-designed, sharp, of giant size and made of iron. The golden fort-wall, inlaid with gems, corals, lapis-lazuli and pearls is impregnable. All-round there are very deep and large moats through which flows cold water full of fishes and crocodiles. In the gate-ways there are large draw-bridges which are provided with machines and which are lined with houses. On arrival of hostile armies, these machines will protect the draw-bridges and fling the hostile forces into the moats.  

लङ्का पुनर्निरालम्बा देवदुर्गा भयावहा ।
नादेयं पार्वतं वान्यं कृत्रिमं च चतुर्विधम् ॥६//२०॥

Fearsome Lanka is not accessible by Devas even and has four types of fortification:- man-made and in the form of a river, mountain and forest. 

निविष्टा तत्र शिखरे लङ्का रावणपालिता ।
दशयोजनविस्तीर्णा विंशद्योजनमायता ॥
सा पुरी गोपुरैरुच्चैः पाण्डराम्बुदसन्निभैः ।
काञ्चनेन च सालेन राजतेन च शोभिता ॥
प्रासादैश्च विमानैश्च लङ्का परमशोभिता ।
घनैरिवातपापाये मध्यमं वैष्णवं पदम् ॥
यस्यां स्तंभसहस्रेण प्रासादः समलङ्कृतः ।
कैलासशिखराकारो दृश्यते खमिवोल्लिखन् ॥
चैत्यः स राक्षसेन्द्रस्य बभूव पुरभूषणम् ।
बलेन रक्षसां नित्यं यः समग्रेण रक्ष्यते ॥ ६/३९/२०-२४ ॥

Situated at the top of mountain Trikoota, Lanka protected by Ravana is ten yojanas long and twenty yojanas wide. The city looked beautiful with its tall towers and silvery and golden fortifications and mansions and spires. The city looked like the sky with autumnal clouds. In that city there was Ravana's  mansion which had hundred pillars and which looked like kailasa mountain and as if it was scraping the sky. The mansion which was protected by the complete army of the rakshasas was the ornament of the city.

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