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Saturday, December 3, 2016

Invocatory Verses-3

मङ्गलश्लोकः-३
एकैश्वर्ये स्थितोऽपि प्रणतबहुफले यस्स्वयं कृत्तिवासाः
कान्तासम्मिश्रदेहोऽप्यविषयमनसां यः परस्ताद्यतीनाम् ।
अष्टाभिर्यस्य कृत्स्नं जगदपि तनुभिर्बिभ्रतो नाभिमानः
सन्मार्गालोकनाय व्यपनयतु स वस्तामसीं वृत्तिमीशः ॥ ३ ॥
अ : यः प्रणत-बहु-फले एक-ऐश्वर्ये स्थितः अपि स्वयं कृत्ति-वासाः, यः कान्ता-सम्मिश्र-देहः अपि अ-विषय-मनसां यतीनाम् परस्तात्, यस्य अष्टाभिः तनुभिः कृत्स्नं जगत् अपि बिभ्रतः न अभिमानः, सः ईशः सन्मार्ग-अवलोकनाय वः तामसीं वृत्तिं व्यपनयतु । 
Lord Shiva wears a hide for his clothing although he is endowed with all the wealth which bears abundant fruits to those who take refuge in him; He is the greatest of ascetics whose minds are devoid of sensual attractions although his body is partly that of his beloved; He is devoid of pride although he supports the entire universe through his eight-fold forms.  May He destroy your sinful activities in order to guide you in the righteous path.


Notes: The eight-fold forms of the Lord are the same as described in the previous verse. The three invocatory verses above clearly point out that Kalidasa was a worshipper of Shiva. 
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Friday, November 25, 2016

Invocatory Verses-2

मङ्गलश्लोकाः-२
या सृष्टिः स्रष्टुराद्या वहति विधिहुतं या हविर्या च होत्री
ये द्वे कालं विधत्तः श्रुतिविषयगुणा या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वम् ।
यामाहुः सर्वबीजप्रकृतिरिति यया प्राणिनः प्राणवन्तः
प्रत्यक्षाभिः प्रपन्नः तनुभिरवतु  वः ताभिरष्टाभिरीशः ॥ २ ॥
अ : या स्रष्टुः आद्या सृष्टिः, या विधि-हुतम् हविः वहति, या होत्री च, ये द्वे कालं विधत्तः , या श्रुति-विषय-गुणा विश्वं व्याप्य स्थिता, यां सर्व-बीज-प्रकृतिः इति आहुः, यया प्राणिनः प्राणवन्तः, ताभिः अष्टाभिः प्रत्यक्षाभिः तनुभिः प्रपन्नः ईशः वः अवतु ।
The Almighty endowed with these eight perceptible forms protect  all of you. The form which was created by the creator as the first (among all) (Water); the form which carries the duly offered oblation (Fire); the form which offers the oblation (Offerer of the oblation); the two forms which support the Time (the Sun and the Moon); the form which pervades the universe and which is perceived by the ear ( Space or Ether); the form which is considered as the originator of all seeds (Earth); the form by which all beings breath ( Wind). [Kalidasa; Abhijnanashakuntalam]
Notes: This invocatory verse is sung by the Stage Manager as he enters the stage at the start of the play, Abhijnanashakuntalam. Water is considered to have been created by the Lord at first before everything else. The person who offers the oblation and the fire which carries the oblation are both considered as divine forms. The Sun and the Moon provide a reference for the concept of Time. As per Hindu Philosophy, the space or ether is considered to be characterized by sound perceived by the ear. The poet refers to the forms indirectly by describing their main characteristic. 
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Saturday, November 19, 2016

Invocatory Verses-1


मङ्गलश्लोकाः-१

( Invocatory Verses )

Sanskrit poets often start their works paying obeisance to their chosen deities. An attempt is being made here to consolidate and present such verses with prose order in Sanskrit and translation in English. Notes are added where considered necessary. The name of the poet and title of the work is also given.

वागर्थाविव सम्पृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये ।
जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ॥ १ ॥
अ : वाक्-अर्थौ-इव सम्पृक्तौ जगतः पितरौ पार्वती-परमेश्वरौ वाक्-अर्थ-प्रतिपत्तये वन्दे ।
In order to gain correct perception of  words and their meanings, I bow to Parvati and Parameshvara, who are the parents of the universe and whose association with each other is similar to that of a word and its meaning. [ Kalidasa; Raghuvamsam ]

Notes : The more one ponders on this famous verse the more one perceives its profundity. The association between the word and its meaning is as permanent as the association between Parameshvara and his consort Parvati. After all Paramesvara is Ardhanarishvara, who has assimilated his consort into his own body. Just as the divine pair has created this universe, the association of word and its meaning creates the universe of the spoken and written word. 
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Saturday, November 12, 2016

Varadarajastava of Sri. Appayyadikshhita- 35

वरदराजस्तवः-३५

साम्यभ्रमादविनयेन समुन्नतस्य
सव्यं तवाक्षि हरति श्रियमम्बुजस्य ।
तस्यापि तां समधिकाम् तनुते यदन्यत्
दाक्षिण्यमेव दनुजाहित तत्र मूलम् ॥ १०२ ॥
अ : दनुजाहित ! तव सव्यं अक्षि अविनयेन समुन्नतस्य अम्बुजस्य श्रियं हरति । अन्यत् (अक्षि) तस्य अपि तां समधिकां तनुते (इति) यत् तत्र दाक्षिण्यम् एव मूलम् ।
O one who is unfriendly to daanava’s ! your  left eye robs the lustre of the lotus which is proud and discourteous. If the right eye bestows a higher status to the lotus, it is because it is kind towards it.
Notes: The poet plays on the word “daakshinya” which means “ rightsidedness” and also “being kind”.

पद्मानुरागजुषि लोहितकृष्णशुक्लाम्
आसेदुषि प्रकृतिमादृतमीनरूपे ।
श्रुत्यन्तभासिनि मदावलशैलनाथ
त्वल्लोचने त्वयि च भाति न मे विशेषः ॥ १०३ ॥
अ : मदावल-शैल-नाथ ! पद्म-अनुराग-जुषि लोहित-कृष्ण-शुक्लां प्रकृतिम् आसेदुषि आदृत-मीन-रूपे श्रुति-अन्त-भासिनि त्वत्-लोचने त्वयि च विशेषः मे न भाति ।
Lord of Hastishaila ! I do not see any difference between you and your eye. Your eye has the redness of a lotus, is red, black and white by nature, has the appearance of a fish and shines right up to the ear. You are dear to Lakshmi, you are described as red,black and white (in the Vedas), you took the form of a fish and you are seen as the ultimate goal of the Vedas.
Notes: The poet cleverly uses words with double meanings to bring out the apparent similarity between the Lord and his eye.
  
मुक्तः प्रजापतिरयं मम दर्शनादि-
त्यन्यं विधातुमनसस्तव भालजाता ।
घर्माम्बुबिन्दुततिरेव किरीटमूल-
-प्रत्युप्तमौक्तिकततिच्छलतो विभाति ॥ १०४ ॥
अ : अयं प्रजापतिः मम दर्शनात् मुक्तः इति अन्यं विधातुमनसः तव भाल-जाता घर्म-अम्बु-ततिः एव किरीट-मूल-मौक्तिक-तति-छलतः विभाति ।
The group of sweat drops on your temple seems to be in the garb of the group of gems at the bottom of your crown. It looks as if you generated the sweat drops with an intention to create another Brahma as Brahma attained salvation by looking at you.
Notes: The verse alludes to a story in Mahopanishat, wherein it is said that Brahma was born out of the sweat drops of Vishnu when he was meditating. It is also said that Brahma worshipped Vishnu through a horse sacrifice and Vishnu appeared at the end of the sacrifice when Brahma got salvation.

राजन्त्यनर्घमणिसङ्घमये किरीटे
राजीवलोचन न नीलमणिप्रवेकाः ।
आघ्राय गन्धमलिनस्तव कुन्तलानाम्
अन्तः प्रवेष्टुमनसः परितो निलीनाः ॥ १०५ ॥
अ : राजीवलोचन ! अनर्घ-मणि-सङ्घ-मये किरीटे नील-मणि-प्रवेकाः न राजन्ति । अलिनः तव कुन्तलानां गन्धम् आघ्राय अन्तः-प्रवेष्टु-मनसः परितः निलीनाः ।
 Lotus-eyed Lord ! the choicest of sapphire gems on your crown which is made up of a cluster of precious gems do not shine. Bees are swarming around your lock of hair intending to enter it after smelling its fragrance.

आपादमाचिकुरमशेषमङ्ग-
मानन्दवृन्दलसितं सुदृशामसीमम् ।
अन्तर्मम स्फुरतु सन्ततमन्तरात्मन्
अम्भोजलोचन तव श्रितहस्तिशैलम् ॥ १०६ ॥
अ: अन्तरात्मन् अम्भोजलोचन ! तव श्रित-हस्ति-शैलम् आपादम् आचिकुरम् अशेषम् सुदृशाम् असीमम् आनन्द-वृन्द-लसितं अङ्गम् मम अन्तः सततं स्फुरतु ।
O Lotus-eyed Lord who resides in one’s mind ! May your entire form from head to foot, residing at Hastishaila, which is accessible to ladies and realized souls and which is brimming with ultimate joy shine in my mind all the time.

इति श्री अप्पय्यदीक्षितरचितः वरदराजस्तवः समाप्तः
( Thus ends the hymn on Vardaraja composed by Sri. Appayyadikshita)
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Saturday, November 5, 2016

Varadarajastava of Sri.Appayyadikshita- 34

वरदराजस्तवः -३४

सञ्चारशालि तव निःश्वसिते समस्त-
वेदेतिहासवपुषि द्विपशैलनाथ ।
नाभीसरोरुहनवारुणमण्डले च
मन्ये मधुव्रतकुलं मधुविद्ययोक्तम् ॥ ९९ ॥
अ : द्विप-शैल-नाथ ! मधुविद्यया उक्तं मधु-व्रत-कुलं तव समस्त-वेद-इतिहास-वपुषि निःश्वसिते नाभी-सरोरुह-नव-अरुण-मण्डले च सञ्चारशालि (इति) मन्ये ।
O Lord of Hastishaila ! In your breath which encompasses all the Vedas and Itihasas (historical narratives) and in the solar-orb of your lake-like navel a swarm of bees hovers around and I believe that it is the same as what is prescribed as Madhuvidya in Chandogya Upanishat.
Notes: Madhuvidya refers to an elaborate metaphor that occurs in Chandogya Upanishat. The sky is the honeycomb at the centre of which the solar orb is the honey. Riks (hymns) are the bees which extract honey from the four Vedas which are the flowers. Offerings made to the fire in the form of ghee, milk etc. by reciting Riks merge with the solar orb and form the honey.

देहाद्वदन्ति जननं मुनयस्तिलानां
देवेन्द्रवन्द्यचरणाम्बुज तावकीनात् ।
नारायणैतदुचितं प्रकटीकरोति
नासाभिधानमिह दिव्यतिलप्रसूनम् ॥ १०० ॥
अ : देवेन्द्र-वन्द्य-चरण-अम्बुज नारायण ! मुनयः तिलानां जननं तावकीनात् देहात् (इति) वदन्ति । इह एतत् नास-अभिधानं दिव्य-तिल-प्रसूनं उचितं प्रकटीकरोति ।
O Narayana, whose feet are worshipped by Indra ! sages declare that Sesamum originated from your body. Your nose which is like a sesumum flower appropriately demonstrates that.
Note: Sesumum is supposed to have originated from the sweat drops of Vishnu.

नेत्रे तव क्व भगवन्क्व च पुण्डरीकं
ब्रूते तयोस्तदुपमानमथापि वेदः ।
सर्वात्मनस्तव समाधिकवस्त्वलाभात्
आकाशवत्स खलु सर्वगतत्वमाह ॥ १०१ ॥
अ : भगवन् ! तव नेत्रे क्व ! पुण्डरीकं च क्व ! अथ अपि वेदः तयोः तत् उपमानं ब्रूते ! सर्व-आत्मनः तव सम-अधिक-वस्तु-अलाभात् आकाशवत् सर्व-गतत्वं आह खलु ।

Lord ! Where are your eyes, where is the lotus ! Even then, the Vedas say that your eyes are like lotus. In the absence of something equal or greater than you,  Vedas after all, declare your omnipresence to be like the sky.
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Saturday, October 29, 2016

Varadarajastava of Sri.Appayyadikshita-33

वरदराजस्तवः -३३

सिद्धौषधं जयति तेऽधररत्नपात्रे
तापत्रयी झटिति मुञ्चति येन सिक्तम् ।
मन्ये तुषारकिरणं गुणलेशयोगात्
अस्यैव वारिजविलोचन कल्कपुञ्जम् ॥ ९६ ॥
अ : वारिजविलोचन ! ते अधर-रत्न-पात्रे सिद्ध-औषधं जयति येन सिक्तं तापत्रयी झट् इति मुञ्चति । गुण-लेश-योगात् तुषार-किरणं अस्य एव कल्क-पुञ्जं मन्ये ।
O Lotus-eyed ! In the cup of your gem-like lips there is a sure medicine, soaked with which the threefold afflictions of life quickly vanish. I believe that having a little of the quality of this elixir, the rays of moon are the sediments of this elixir.    

आतन्वतामवयवेषु गतागतानि
युक्तात्मनां वरद यौवतचक्षुषां च ।
विश्रान्तिभूर्विधुकरप्रकरावदाता
मन्दस्मितच्छविरियं तव मां पुनातु ॥ ९७ ॥
अ : अवयवेषु गत-आगतानि आतन्वतां युक्त-आत्मनां यौवत-चक्षुषां च विश्रान्ति-भूः तव इयं विधु-कर-प्रकर-अवदाता  मन्दस्मित-छविः मां पुनातु ।
May the lustre of your smile as white as the rays of the moon, which acts as a resting place for the realized souls and the eyes of youthful persons who roam (ruminate) over your limbs purify me.

निःश्वासमन्दमलयानिलकन्दलेन
निर्हारिणा बहुतरेण च सौरभेन ।
नासापुटौ नलिनलोचन ते मनोज्ञौ
मन्ये सदैव मधुमाधवयोर्निवासौ ॥ ९८ ॥
अ : नलिन-लोचन ! निःश्वास-मन्द-मलय-अनिल-कन्दलेन निर्हारिणा बहुतरेण सौरभेन च ते मनोज्ञौ नासा-पुटौ मधु-माधवयोः सदा एव निवासौ इति मन्ये ।
O Lotus-eyed  ! I surmise from your exhaled breath which is soft like new shoots and the fragrance that diffuses to distances that your beautiful nostrils are permanent abodes of the two months of the spring.
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Saturday, October 22, 2016

Varadarajastava of Sri.Appayyadikshita- 32

वरदराजस्तवः -३२

बिम्बस्तवायमधरः प्रतिबिम्बनेन
युक्तं सदा युवतिमानसदर्पणेषु ।
बिम्बाधरः कविभिरीश्वर वर्ण्यसे त्वम्
एतावतैव न तु तुच्छफलोपमानात् ॥ ९३ ॥
अ : ईश्वर ! तव अयम् अधरः युवति-मानस-दर्पणेषु प्रतिबिम्बनेन बिम्बः (इति) युक्तम्। त्वं कविभिः बिम्बाधरः एतावता एव वर्ण्यसे न तु तुच्छ-फल-उपमानात् ।
 Lord ! it is proper that your lower lip is called “bimba”(an image) as it is reflected in mirrors called minds of young ladies. Poets describe you as one having “bimba adhara” only because of this and not as one having the lower lip like the “bimba” fruit, which simile lowers the divinity of your lip.
Note : Poets normally liken red lips to the “bimba” fruit. The poet indicates that it is not a proper simile to be applied to Lord’s lips and interprets the word “bimbaadhara” in an imaginative manner.  

विद्यामयेषु तव निःश्वसितेष्वपूर्वं
विद्याविशेषमिव शिक्षितुमन्तरात्मन् ।
वाण्याः सदा तव मुखाम्बुरुहे वसन्त्याः
कायप्रभेव लसति स्मितचन्द्रिका ते ॥ ९४ ॥
अ :अन्तरात्मन् ! तव विद्यामयेषु निःश्वसितेषु अपूर्वं विद्या-विशेषम् शिक्षितुम् इव ते स्मित-चन्द्रिका तव मुख-अम्बुरुहे सदा वसन्त्याः वाण्याः काय-प्रभा इव लसति ।
 O Lord residing in the minds of beings ! your moonlight-like smile shines as if it is the radiance of the body of Saraswati residing permanently in your lotus-like face trying to teach a branch of knowledge , not known previously, in your breaths which are replete with all knowledge.
Note :  Appayyadikshita in his commentary quotes to say that Lord’s breath contains Rik,Yajus,Saama Vedas.  

तापत्रयौषधवरस्य तव स्मितस्य
निःश्वासमन्दमरुता निबुसीकृतस्य ।
एते कडङ्गरचया इव विप्रकीर्णा
जैवातृकस्य किरणा जगति भ्रमन्ति ॥ ९५ ॥
अ : एते जैवातृकस्य किरणाः तव निःश्वास-मन्द-मरुता निबुसीकृतस्य  ताप-त्रय-औषध-वरस्य तव स्मितस्य विप्रकीर्णा कडङ्गर-चयाः इव जगति भ्रमन्ति ।
These rays of the moon wander on the earth as if they form the heaps of chaff of your smile, which acts as the best medicine for the three afflictions(“taapatraya”), after being dechaffed by the gentle breeze of your breath.
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