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Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Subhashita-kaustubha (36-38)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (३६-३८)
दैर्घ्यं बाह्वोरेव येषां न वैरे
तैक्ष्ण्यं बुद्धावेव दृष्टं न वाचि ।
मान्द्यं हासे मानसे नैव तेषाम्
के वा नेच्छ्न्त्यत्र सेवामभिज्ञाः ॥ ३६ ॥
Their arms are long but their enmity is not long lasting. There is sharpness in their intellect but not in their
speech. There is mildness in their smile but not in their mind. Who among the knowledgeable do not like to serve such persons?

ऋणे व्रणे वा द्रविणे तृणे वा
खले मले वा विषये विषे वा ।
भवे दवे वा समबुद्धयोऽमी
जयन्ति सन्तस्त्रिजगन्त्यवन्त्यः ॥ ३७ ॥
Their attitude is the same between indebtedness and a wound, between money and a blade of grass, between an evil-minded person and filth, between sense objects and poison, between worldly life and forest-fire. Such persons flourish protecting the three worlds. [It is due to the presence of such great men that the world sustains itself. Pleasant alliteration in the verse is to be noted.]

सूर्यालोकदशासु हर्षमयसे दोषाकरालोकने
सङ्कोचं भजसि श्रितालिषु मुहुर्दत्से परं जीवनम् ।
पङ्कं शश्वदधः करोषि वहसे नालीकशब्दं च तत्
विद्मः पद्म तनोति सन्निधिमसौ युक्ते त्वयि श्रीरिति ॥ ३८ ॥
In the presence of the Sun (सूर्य) you are happy. In the presence of the Moon (दोषाकर) you shrink. You often provide sustenance to the bees who seek shelter in you. You permanently lower the slush (on which you grow). You are called “naaleeka”. O Lotus, we know that Goddess Lakshmi has made her abode in you rightly.
Meaning 2: In the presence of sages (सूरि+आकर) you are happy. From the presence of those who are a source of sins (दोष+आकर) you withdraw. You provide life to those who seek refuge in you. You lower sins (पङ्क). You never utter a lie (न+अलीक). We know that Goddess Lakshmi stays with you rightly. (The second meaning refers to an enlightened person.)
इति सज्जनपद्धतिः द्वितीया |
Thus ends the second section dealing with the virtuous.
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Saturday, October 22, 2011

Subhashita-kaustubha (31-35)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (३१-३५)
विविधागमधारिणः क्षितौ
अतितुङ्गाः हरिणाश्रितान्तराः ।
अचला इव वंशपालकाः
शिरसा बिभ्रति साधवो घनान् ॥ ३१ ॥
Virtuous persons are vehicles of various branches of knowledge (विविधागमधारिणः); they are towering persons in the world (क्षितौ अतितुङ्गाः); their heart is occupied by God (हरिणा आश्रित अन्तराः); they protect their heritage (वंश पालकाः); they hold the lofty persons in high esteem (घनान् शिरसा बिभ्रति); they are like mountains which provide shelter to various trees (विविध अगम धारिणः), whose interiors are a refuge to deer (हरिण आश्रित अन्तराः), which protect bamboo groves [growing on the mountain] (वंश पालकाः) and carry clouds (घनान्) at their top. [While translating such pun-built poetic statements Gold indeed becomes Lead!]    

अत्यासक्तिस्साधुषु ब्रह्मनिष्ठे-
ष्वौदासीन्यं प्राणिषु प्राकृतेषु ।
दृप्तेष्वार्यद्रोहिषु द्वेष एवे-
त्येषा रीतिर्भाति शुद्धा बुधानाम् ॥ ३२ ॥
The following shine forth as the pure conduct followed by the learned:- Deep interest in the sages who are seekers of Brahman, detachment towards other lowly beings and dislike for the haughty and those who harm the civilized.

स्त्रिय एव परं परस्त्रीषु ।
अश्रोत्रियेषु लुब्धाः
सन्तः केषां न तोषाय ॥ ३३ ॥
Who do not appreciate the virtuous who behave like the unruly with the unruly, behave like women with others’ women, behave like misers with those who do not follow the Vedic conduct? [A Virtuous person does not cooperate with the unruly, his attitude to others’ women is as if he is himself a woman and is extremely miserly in passing off his knowledge when he needs to interact with those who do not follow the Vedic conduct.]

अतुल्या कल्याणी प्रकृतिरनघं वल्गु च वचो
मनीषा निर्दोषा महितमविगीतं च चरितम् ।
अदूष्यं वैदुष्यं हृदयमपि येषामुरुदयं
ध्रुवं तेषामेषामिह परिचिचीषापि शुभदा ॥ ३४ ॥
Their nature is incomparably propitious; their speech is faultless and pleasant; their intellect is unblemished; their conduct is lofty and above reproach; their scholarship is blameless; their heart is full of compassion. Even the desire to get to know such persons certainly bestows happiness.

क्षमा तुङ्गेप्यागस्यनिशमपकुर्वत्स्वपि दया
परेषां कार्येषु व्यसनमनघे कर्मणि रुचिः ।
परीवादास्पृष्टा फणितिरथ पात्रे वितरणं
परा कृष्णे भक्तिः पुरुषमभिजातं कथयति ॥ ३५ ॥
Forgiveness towards even serious crimes; mercy towards even those who harm often; a sense of attachment in others’ endeavours; a taste for sinless work; speech free of blame for others; donating to those who deserve; deep devotion toward Lord Krishna; these characteristics proclaim a person of nobility.
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Monday, October 17, 2011

Subhashita-kaustubha (27-30)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (२७-३०)
विधीयते विस्मयो नः प्रतिपन्नगुणादिभिः ।
अच्छप्रत्ययसंयुक्तैः वृद्धैः कैश्चिद्विलक्षणैः ॥ २७ ॥
We are surprised by some elderly persons who are endowed with good qualities and who have a spotless reputation. [As in earlier verses, this has an alternative meaning. It is associated with some aspect of grammar, which is unfortunately obscure to the translator. Words that belong to the class वृद्ध {words which have undergone वृद्धि} would not have undergone गुण operation. वृद्ध words also are associated with छ प्रत्यय. The peculiarity seen by the poet is that वृद्ध associated with छ प्रत्यय are also associated with गुण, which is not normally the case!   The commentator quotes two Panini Sutra’s : वृद्धिर्यस्याचामादिः तद्वृद्धम् and वृद्धाच्छः.]

परसंयोगमहिमा लघोरपि यतः स्वतः ।
गुरुत्वमावहत्येव प्रमाणं तस्य पाणिनिः ॥ २८ ॥
Even if a person by himself is of no consequence (लघु), he attains eminence (गुरुत्वम्) by virtue of his association with the mighty (पर). Panini is the authority for this. Panini declares that a syllable which is लघु by itself becomes गुरु when followed by a conjunct consonant (परसंयोग)-> an important rule in Sanskrit prosody. [The poet manages to bring in similarity between an aspect of grammar and a statement of worldly value by a clever use of words with double meanings.]  

न वचस्यनृताश्रयस्सतां युवतावेव परस्य केवलम् ।
न च मन्युरपक्रियोदये प्रथते किन्तु वसन्त सम्भवे ॥ २९ ॥

For the virtuous, अनृत+आश्रयः= dependence on untruth does not exist in their words, but अ+नृ-ता+आश्रयः= attitude of not being manly exists towards others’ damsels. मन्यु=anger does not manifest itself in the event of hurt caused by others, but मन्यु= a type of sacrifice is performed at the advent of spring. [The virtuous do not tell untruth, their attitude to others’ women is as if they do not have manhood and they do not get angry if they are hurt by others. The poet has transformed that simple statement in to a puzzle by using words अनृताश्रय and मन्यु which have double meanings. मन्यु is the name of a sacrifice which is performed during spring.]

जगतामुपकारका जना
जलसङ्गाच्चकितास्तमोहराः ।
अनला इव तर्पयन्त्यमी
हविषामर्पणतो बुधोत्तमान् ॥ ३० ॥
Good persons are like fire. Both are helpful to the world. They are afraid of जड/जल (the dull/ water). They dispel तमस् (ignorance/darkness). Through supply of हविस् ( ghee/ oblations) they please बुधोत्तम s (the best of scholars/ the divine beings). [The poet displays his fondness for श्लेष.]
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Thursday, October 13, 2011

Subhashita-kaustubha (24-26)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (२४-२६)
प्रकृत्या परिशुद्धानां प्रत्ययं समुपेयुषाम् ।
शब्दानामिव साधूनां संगतिर्गृह्यते बुधैः ॥ २४ ॥
Company of the virtuous, who are by nature pure and who inspire confidence is liked by the learned just as correct words, which have a pure radical and which take terminations are liked by them. [Here also the choice of words with pun (श्लेष) enables the poet to contrive a simile: प्रकृति= nature, radical or stem of a word; प्रत्यय=confidence, terminations that a stem takes. ]

हन्त स्वयमशक्तैरप्यशक्यार्थस्समीहितः ।
मुख्यसम्बन्धमाहात्म्यान्नीयते सिद्धिमञ्जसा ॥ २५ ॥
Even those who are by themselves unable to obtain their desired ends quickly attain them by virtue of their association with important persons. A second meaning emanates as follows: Words which are by themselves not able to convey the intended meaning do so by virtue of their concomitance with another important entity. [There is a standard example offered in poetics for this. The phrase गङ्गायां घोषः is used to convey “a hamlet on the banks of Ganga” although the literal meaning is “village in Ganga.” The meaning of “a hamlet on the banks of Ganga” emanates by virtue of the intimate concomitance of Ganga and its banks.]

दृष्टान्तरहिताः केचित् दृढं नियममाश्रिताः ।
न्यायज्ञैरभिगम्यन्ते हेतवोऽभीष्टसिद्धिषु ॥ २६ ॥
Some persons who have none to be compared with-non pareil- , who adhere to strict principles and who fulfill cherished desires are approached by those who value righteousness. A second technical meaning associated with logic is also intended as follows: Certain causes which are firmly based on principles although devoid of analogy are accepted by logicians for proving a premise. [The poet unfortunately indulges in banality in his attempt to show his skill as a wordsmith.]
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Monday, October 10, 2011

Subhashita-kaustubha (21-23)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (२१-२३)
अथ सज्जनपद्धतिः
Now the section on the virtuous.
आलोकेषु त्रिदशसुदृशामप्यनुद्यद्विकाराः
प्राणापत्स्वप्यनृतचकिताः प्राभवेष्वप्यदृप्ताः ।
प्रत्यर्थिष्वप्यकठिनहृदः पार्थिवेष्वप्यदीनाः
सन्तो गुप्त्यै कतिचन युगेऽप्यन्तिमे सन्ति मेऽस्मिन् ॥ २१ ॥
Even at the sight of divine damsels they do not get disturbed; Even at the time of danger to life, they are afraid of telling untruth; Even during their affluence they are not haughty; Even with foes they are kindhearted; Even with kings they do not lose their dignity; Even in this age of Kali how many such great souls are there to take care of me!

सदैव मित्राभ्युदयाभिकाङ्क्षिभिः
महातपस्स्मेरतमैः कुशेशयैः ।
परिष्कृतिः किं भुवनस्य नो भवेत् ॥ २२ ॥
Meaning 1: Why will not the world be purified by those who are always wishing for the welfare of their friends, who bear a smile even during  rigorous penance, who sleep on darbha grass and who are endowed with easy accessibility?
Meaning 2:  Why will not the world be adorned by the lotuses, which look forward to the rising of the sun, which bloom in the heat of the sun and which are full of
intense special fragrance? [The poet weaves a poetic web by his choice of words with two meanings. मित्र= friend, sun; महा तपस् =great penance, महा आतप = intense heat of sun, कुशेशय=lotus, one who sleeps on grass, सौलभ्य= accessibility, सौरभ्य= fragrance {and are treated equivalent}. He thus draws a parallel between a good person and a lotus.]

सुदृशां श्रुतिपथसुभगङ्करणगिराम्
अतनुशास्त्रवश्यानाम् ।
सदागतिष्वादरः कथं न स्यात् ॥ २३ ॥
Meaning 1:Why will not those who look at good things (do not look at bad things), whose speech is pleasant because of association with the Vedas, whose command over scriptures is not meager and who have an abiding love for the Supreme Being not be eager at the arrival of the virtuous? [Good and learned persons will always be eager to meet with other good persons.]
Meaning 2: The poet suggests another meaning by the use of pun as follows: Why will not those good looking women –सुदृशाम्- whose speech is pleasant to the ears-श्रुतिपथ-, who are controllable by the methods of kaama-अतनु (अनङ्ग)-shastra, who enjoy union with great personalities-पुरुषोत्तम- not be eager to tread the sinful path-अगति-?  [The poet provides a parallel between learned persons who are drawn towards other learned persons and those good-looking women who tread the sinful path. This form of suggesting a parallel is called as शब्दशक्तिध्वनि as the parallelism exists because of the words chosen.
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Saturday, October 8, 2011

Subhashita-kaustubha (19-20)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (१९-२०)
पुमानेकः प्राज्ञो बत बत बहूनामविदुषाम्
न मध्ये वैदग्ध्याद्विलसति समस्तार्थविदपि ।
रुमायामायाते गरिमवति कर्पूरशकले
कथंचिद् व्यावृत्तिं क इव लवणेभ्यो गणयति ॥ १९ ॥
Alas, an erudite scholar does not shine among a group of persons who lack knowledge. In the city of Ruma, if by some means a piece of camphor were to find a place, who will differentiate it from salt? ( Ruma is supposed to be a town inhabited by only fools.)

स्फुरसि शिरसि राज्ञामद्भुतं सौरभं ते
तव च जयति मूर्तिस्तप्तकार्तस्वराभा ।
न भजति मधुपश्चेच्चम्पक त्वामभाग्यः
तव भवतु निकामं तावता नैव तापः ॥ २० ॥
O champak, you adorn the heads of kings. Your fragrance is marvelous. Your form is of golden colour. If an unlucky bee does not approach you, let that not cause you agony. ( A well recognized brilliant personality need not be upset just because a drunkard –मधुप- has ignored him. “Champak” is a well known Indian flower.)
इत्यात्रेयवेङ्कटार्ययज्वनः कृतिषु सुभाषितकौस्तुभे अविवेकपद्धतिः आद्या ।
Thus the first “section on imprudence” in Subhashitakaustubha among the works of Venkatarya Yajvaa of Atreya Gotra.
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Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Subhashita-kaustubha (16-18)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (१६-१८)
यस्सिंधुर्भवदुद्गमापगमयोर्वृद्धिक्षयौ विन्दते
यो वा हन्त दशाद्वयेऽप्यविकृतावस्थोऽस्ति वेशन्तकः ।
तारानाथ वसुव्रजं किरसि किं तत्रोभयत्राप्यहो
तौल्येनैव जडात्मनस्तव कथं नैतादृशं युज्यते ॥ १६ ॥
O moon (Lord of stars), you spread your rays equally on the ocean which falls and rises as you decline and grow and the lake which is unperturbed during your two states. What else can be expected from a dull-headed person like you? [ जड=dull and जल=water.,जलात्मा=dull-headed and. जलात्मा=moon.  Moon is supposed to be watery. There is a rule that and can be treated as same. The poet is criticizing someone who does not discriminate between a person who has empathy with him and one who does not have.]  

मन्दप्रज्ञाध्यापनं क्षुद्रमैत्री
नीरूपस्त्रीसंगतिर्नीचसेवा ।
केषां न स्यात् खेदसम्पादनाय ॥ १७ ॥
Who are not led to sorrow by these?:- Teaching the dull-headed, Friendship with the small-minded, Union with an ugly woman, Serving the worthless, Following one who does not know what is essential and what is not. 

बकानां भेकानामपि विरुतयो यत्र वितता
प्रवर्धन्ते पङ्काः स्फुरति न हि सूर्याकृतिरपि ।
गता हंसा हिंसामहह पिहितं वर्त्म च सताम्
नमः कालायास्मै नवजलधरोदारतमसे ॥ १८ ॥
Salutations to the season of rains. The new clouds have spread darkness all round, the noises of geese and frogs are spreading, sloughs are increasing, the orb of sun cannot be seen, swans have been harmed, the path of stars cannot be seen. [ There is a subtle suggestion- ध्वनि- through pun-श्लेष- of times under a bad ruler, when the learned are not seen-सूरि आकृति-, the saintly – हंसाः- are harmed, the path of the virtuous- सतां वर्त्म- is not visible.
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Saturday, October 1, 2011

Subhashita-kaustubha (13-15)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (१३-१५)
अज्ञस्त्वां यदुपेक्ष्य मन्दमतिभिर्धन्यं सदा मन्यते
शोको मास्तु ततस्सुधीजनसभाशोभाकृतस्ते कवे ।
खद्योतं निदधातु भास्करतया नीडे निजे टिट्टिभो
दीपः क्ष्मापतिकेलिसौधमहितः किं तावता हीयते ॥ १३ ॥
O poet, if an ignoramus considers himself blessed surrounding himself with dull headed persons, let it not be a cause for grief for you who can adorn the assembly of the learned. If the Tittibha bird keeps a firefly in its nest it is no disgrace to the lamp which is honored in the recreation-palace of the king.

तावत्ते सरिदन्तरादतिशयस्तत्तादृशो दृश्यते
गङ्गापूर सुचञ्चलं जलनिधिं यावन्न संगाहसे ।
तं चेदञ्चसि हन्त नायकधिया त्वद्रूपसंभावनम्
कृत्वा नेष्यति तुल्यभावमरसैः स त्वां जलैः प्राकृतैः ॥ १४ ॥
O Flow of Ganga, your superiority distinguishing you from other rivers is seen so long as you do not dive into the very unsteady ocean. When you look upon the ocean as your Lord, he will equate you with all and sundry rivers that flow into him.[ Through this अन्योक्ति, the poet apparently dissuades a  distinguished and accomplished lady from falling in love with a philanderer.] 

विषतरुतौल्यतो जलधरस्त्वयि वर्षति य-
न्न भवति तावता ननु रसाल तवावमतिः ।
फलमितरस्य हन्त विलयं कलयत्यचिरात्
तव तु फलं श्रमं शमयतीति जगद्विदितम् ॥ १५ ॥
O Mango tree, if clouds rain on you and a poisonous tree equally it is no disgrace for you. It is well known that your fruits relieve one of fatigue while those of the other, alas, quickly get destroyed. [A poet need not feel humiliated just because an unworthy person is honored in the same way as the poet.]
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