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Saturday, May 26, 2012

The World of Valmiki-25

The World of Valmiki-25
warfare
wrestling
मण्डलानि विचित्राणि स्थानानि विविधानि च ।
गोमूत्रिकाणि चित्राणि गतप्रत्यागतानि च ॥
तिरश्चीनगतान्येव तथा वक्रगतानि च ।
परिमोक्षं प्रहाराणां वर्जनं परिधावनम् ॥
अभिद्रवणमाप्लावमास्थानम् च सविग्रहम् ।
परावृत्तमपावृत्तं अवद्रुतमवप्लुतम् ।
उपन्यस्तमपन्यस्तं युद्धमार्गविशारदौ ॥
तौ सञ्चेरतुरन्योन्यं वानरेन्द्रश्च रावणः ॥६/४०/२३-२६॥
The chief of monkeys, Sugriva and Ravana, both experts in the art of battling took different postures and executed different movements. They moved zigzag in the manner of a cow's urine track. They moved forward and backward. They moved laterally and in a curved path clockwise and anti clockwise. They skillfully avoided the attacks of each other. They ran, fled and moved a little and stayed put firmly. They turned back, quietly slipped to the side to avoid an attack; they moved bent low in order to attack. To attack the opponents shanks they hopped bent low. They extended their arms to catch the opponent's arms. To avoid the opponents hold they moved their arms skillfully. [Valmiki appears to have used several technical terms related to wrestling. Govidaraja says that he is not going into the details as it would be too lengthy.]
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Saturday, May 19, 2012

The World of Valmiki-24

The World of Valmiki-24
Consultation
त्रिविधाः पुरुषा लोके उत्तमाधममध्यमाः ।
तेषां तु समवेतानां गुणदोषौ वदाम्यहम् ॥
मन्त्रिभिर्हितसंयुक्तैः समर्थैर्मन्त्रनिर्णये ।
मित्रैर्वापि समानार्थैर्बान्धवैरपि वा हितैः ॥
सहितो मन्त्रयित्वा यः कर्मारम्भान् प्रवर्तयेत् ।
दैवे च कुरुते यत्नं तमाहुः पुरुषोत्तमम् ॥
एकोऽर्थं विमृशेदेको धर्मे प्रकुरुते मनः ।
एकः कार्याणि कुरुते तमाहुर्मध्यमं नरम् ॥
गुणदोषावनिश्चित्य त्यक्त्वा धर्मव्यपाश्रयम् ।
करिष्यामीति यः कार्यमुपेक्षेत् स नराधमः ॥
There are three types of people, the best, the worst and the medium. I shall tell you their qualities.
One who starts his works after consulting with ministers who are capable of deciding after deliberations, who are bent upon doing what is beneficial after consulting with friends or well disposed relatives who are in similar situations and who also propitiates Providence is a person of the best abilities. One who analyzes within himself and arrives at doing what is right alone and acts alone is a person with medium abilities. One who neglects his duties saying that he will attend to it and without analyzing the pros and cons and not depending on dharma is a person of the worst abilities.  

यथेमे पुरुषा नित्यमुत्तमाधममध्यमाः ।
एवं मन्त्रा हि विज्ञेया उत्तमाधममध्यमाः ॥
ऐकमत्यमुपागम्य शास्त्रदृष्टेन चक्षुषा ।
मन्त्रिणो यत्र निरतास्तमाहुर्मन्त्रमुत्तमम् ॥
बह्व्योऽपि मतयो भूत्वा मन्त्रिणामर्थनिर्णये ।
पुनर्यत्रैकतां प्राप्ताः स मन्त्रो मध्यमः स्मृतः ॥
अन्योन्यं मतिमास्थाय यत्र संप्रतिभाष्यते ।
न चैकमत्ये श्रेयोऽस्ति मन्त्रः सोऽधममुच्यते ॥६//-१४॥
Just as there are three types of people as above, deliberations can also be classified as the best, the worst and medium. Deliberations where the ministers act on coming to a unanimous conclusion after analyzing as per tenets of knowledge are called the best. Deliberations where many differences of opinion are aired and finally one decision is arrived at are called medium. Deliberations where different opinions are expressed and no decision is arrived at are called the worst. 

Member of assembly
न चुक्रुशुः नानृतमाह कश्चित्
सभासदो नापि जजल्पुरुच्चैः ।६/११/३१॥
No one shouted no one uttered lies and the members of the assembly did not speak loudly.

Attendant
यो हि भृत्यो नियुक्तस्सन् भर्त्रा कर्मणि दुष्करे ।
कुर्यात्तदनुरागेण तमाहुः पुरुषोत्तमम् ॥
नियुक्तो यः परं कार्यं न कुर्यान्नृपतेः प्रियम् ।
भृत्यो युक्तः समर्थश्च तमाहुर्मध्यमं नरम् ॥
नियुक्तो नृपतेः कार्यं न कुर्याद्यः समाहितः ।
भृत्यो युक्तः समर्थश्च तमाहुः पुरुषाधमम् ॥६//-९॥
He is called the best of attendants who does with love a difficult task assigned by his master. He is an attendant of average abilities who although being capable after being assigned a job by the king does not do it to the satisfaction of the king. He is an attendant of inferior capabilities who, though capable, does not do the job of the king with concentration.
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Saturday, May 12, 2012

The World of Valmiki-23

The World of Valmiki-23
 
Minister
विद्याविनीता ह्रीमन्तः कुशला नियतेन्द्रियाः ।
श्रीमन्तश्च महात्मानः शास्त्रज्ञा दृढविक्रमाः ॥
कीर्तिमन्तः प्रणिहिता यथावचनकारिणः ।
तेजःक्षमायशःप्राप्ताः स्मितपूर्वाभिभाषिणः ।
क्रोधात् कामार्थहेतोर्वा न ब्रूयुरनृतं वचः ॥
तेषामविदितम् किञ्चित् स्वेषु नास्ति परेषु वा ।
क्रियमाणं कृतं वापि चारेणापि चिकीर्षितम् ॥
कुशला व्यवहारेषु सौहृदेषु परीक्षिताः ।
प्राप्तकालं तु ते दण्डं धारयेयुः सुतेष्वपि ॥
They are humble because of their learning. They are modest, skilled and have their senses under control. They are wealthy, well versed in various fields of knowledge and firm in their valour. They are famed, cautious and keep their promises. They are endowed with radiance, forbearance and fame. Their speech is preceded by their smile and they do not utter a lie on account of anger, lust or wealth. There is nothing they are not aware of either on their own side or on the side of the enemy, things already done or presently being done or anything to be got done through a spy. They are skilled in matters of commerce and choose friends after proper scrutiny. They impose due punishments even on their own sons.

कोशसङ्ग्रहणे युक्ता बलस्य च परिग्रहे ।
अहितं वापि पुरुषं न विहिंस्युरदूषकम् ॥
वीराश्च नियतोत्साहा राजशास्त्रमनुष्ठिताः ।
शुचीनां रक्षितारश्च नित्यं विषयवासिनाम् ॥
ब्रह्मक्षत्रमहिंसन्तः ते कोशं समपूरयन् ।
सुतीक्ष्णदण्डाः संप्रेक्ष्य पुरुषस्य बलाबलम् ॥
शुचीनामेकबुद्धीनां सर्वेषां संप्रजानताम् ।
नासीत् पुरे वा राष्ट्रे वा मृषावादी नरः क्वचित् ॥१//-१२॥
They are engaged in collecting money for the treasury and strengthening the army. They do not trouble even an unfriendly person if he has not committed any crime. They are brave, have steady enthusiasm and follow the tenets of governance. They protect the subjects of clean conduct. They filled the treasury without troubling Brahmins and kshatriyas. Discerning the pros and cons they award due punishment. Governed by such ministers who were honest and single mindedly devoted and who were knowledgeable there was not a single person either in the city or country who told lies.

सुवाससः सुवेषाश्च ते च सर्वे सुशीलिनः ।
हितार्थं च नरेन्द्रस्य जाग्रतो नयचक्षुषा ॥
गुरौ गुणगृहीताश्च प्रख्याताश्च पराक्रमे ।
विदेशेष्वपि विज्ञाताः सर्वतो बुद्धिनिश्चयात् ॥
सन्धिविग्रहतत्त्वज्ञाः प्रकृत्या सम्पदान्विताः ।
मन्त्रसंवरणे शक्ताः शक्ताः सूक्ष्मासु बुद्धिषु ॥
नीतिशास्त्रविशेषज्ञाः सततं प्रियवादिनः ॥१//१४-१७॥
They wore nice clothes and dressed elegantly. They were well mannered and were vigilant always with the eyes of law in order to do what is beneficial to the king. They valued the good advice of elders and were famous for their valour. They were well known even outside the kingdom for their all-round brilliance. They knew the principles of truce and warfare. They were by nature rich. They knew how to protect the secrecy of their plans. They had the ability to reason deeply. They were specialists in political science and always spoke in a pleasant manner.  

संपृष्टेन तु वक्तव्यं सचिवेन विपश्चिता ।
उद्यताञ्जलिना राज्ञे य इच्छेद्भूतिमात्मनः ॥
वाक्यमप्रतिकूलं तु मृदुपूर्वं हितं शुभम् ।
उपचारेण युक्तं च वक्तव्यो वसुधाधिपः ॥
सावमर्दं तु यद्वाक्यं मारीच हितमुच्यते ।
नाभिनन्दति तद्राजा मानार्हो मानवर्जितम् ॥३/४०/-११॥
If a scholarly minister (secretary) wants to succeed, he should talk only when asked by the king, with folded hands raised. He has to speak to the king without contradicting, softly and with entreaties what is beneficial and augurs well for the king. O Maricha, a king who values his self respect will not appreciate any thing beneficial told harshly without valuing self respect.

वध्याः खलु न हन्यन्ते सचिवास्तव रावण ।
ये त्वामुत्पथमारूढं न निगृह्णन्ति सर्वशः ॥
अमात्यैः कामवृत्तो हि राजा कापथमाश्रितः ।
निग्राह्यः सर्वथा सद्भिः स निग्राह्यो न गृह्यसे ॥
धर्ममर्थं च कामं च यशश्च जयतां वर ।
स्वामिप्रसादात् सचिवाः प्राप्नुवन्ति निशाचर ॥
विपर्यये तु तत्सर्वं व्यर्थं भवति रावण ।
व्यसनं स्वामिवैगुण्यात् प्राप्नुवन्तीतरे जनाः ॥
राजमूलो हि धर्मश्च जयश्च जयतां वर ।
तस्मात् सर्वास्ववस्थासु रक्षितव्या नराधिपाः ॥
राज्यं पालयितुं शक्यं न तीक्ष्णेन निशाचर ।
न चापि प्रतिकूलेन नाविनीतेन राक्षस ॥
ये तीक्ष्णमन्त्राः सचिवा भज्यन्ते सह तेन वै ।
विषमे तुरगाः शीघ्रा मन्दसारथयो यथा ॥३/४१/-१२॥
Ravana, your ministers who do not control you for having gone astray deserve to be killed but are not killed. Good ministers should control a king who has taken to bad ways. You who should be controlled are not being controlled. O rakshasa, the great among the victorious, ministers get their need for dharma, wealth, sensual cravings and fame fulfilled by the favours of the king. If things go wrong all that becomes useless. Because of the master's failings others get into difficulties. Dharma and victory originate from the king. Therefore kings have to be protected under all circumstances. O rakshasa, a cruel, adversarial and arrogant king cannot control a nation. Ministers who advise harsh steps get destroyed along with the king like the fast horses along with a dull charioteer on an uneven ground.


यावद्धि केशग्रहणात् सुहृद्भिः
समेत्य सर्वैः परिपूर्णकामैः ।
निगृह्य राजा परिरक्षितव्यो
भूतैर्यथा भीमबलैर्गृहीतः ॥६/१४/१९॥
Friends who have got all their desires fulfilled (by the munificence of the king) should act together to restrain a king even to the extent of holding him by his hair in the manner a person seized by a spirit is restrained by others.

परस्य वीर्यं स्वबलं च बुद्ध्वा
स्थानं क्षयं चैव तथैव् वृद्धिम् ।
तथा स्वपक्षेऽप्यनुसृत्य बुद्ध्या
वदेत् क्षमं स्वामिहितं स मन्त्री ॥६/१४/२२॥
He indeed is a minister who advises what is best and possible for the master after examining the capabilities of the enemy and ones own army and examining the growth, steady state and decay of the two sides.

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Sunday, May 6, 2012

The World of Valmiki-22

The World of Valmiki-22
King and Leader (Continued)


पञ्च रूपाणि राजानो धारयन्त्यमितौजसः ।
अग्नेरिन्द्रस्य सोमस्य वरुणस्य यमस्य च ॥
औष्ण्यं तथा विक्रमं च सौम्यं दण्डं प्रसन्नताम् ।
धारयन्ति महात्मानो राजानः क्षणदाचर ।
तस्मात्सर्वास्ववस्थासु मान्याः पूज्याश्च पार्थिवाः ॥३/४०/१२-१३॥
Kings of great valour hold five forms, of Agni the fire-god, Indra the chief of Devas, Soma moon-god, Varuna ocean-god and Yama, the god of death. They are fierce like fire, valourous like Indra, pleasant like the moon, tranquil like the ocean and punishing like death. O rakshasa, therefore under all circumstances they are to be respected.

बहवः साधवो लोके युक्ता धर्ममनुष्ठिताः ।
परेषामपराधेन विनष्टाः सपरिच्छदाः ॥
स्वामिना प्रतिकूलेन प्रजास्तीक्ष्णेन रावण ।
रक्ष्यमाणा न वर्धन्ते मेषा गोमायुना यथा ॥३/४१/१२-१३॥
Many saintly persons who follow the path of dharma are destroyed along with their dependents on account of others' fault. O Ravana, Citizens ruled by a harsh adversarial king do not thrive like the goats cared for by a fox.

यो हि मित्रेषु कालज्ञः सततं साधु वर्तते ।
तस्य राज्यं च कीर्तिश्च प्रतापश्चाभिवर्धते ॥
यस्य कोशश्च दण्डश्च मित्राण्यात्मा च भूमिप ।
समवेतानि सर्वाणि स राज्यं महदश्नुते ॥
तद्भवान् वृत्तसंपन्नः स्थितः पथि निरत्यये ।
मित्रार्थमभिनीतार्थं यथावत् कर्तुमर्हसि ॥
सन्त्यज्य सर्वकार्याणि मित्रार्थे योऽनुवर्तते ।
संभ्रमाद्धि कृतोत्साहः सोऽनर्थैर्नावरुध्यते ॥
यस्तु कालव्यतीतेषु मित्रकार्येषु वर्तते ।
स कृत्वा महतोऽप्यर्थान्न मित्रार्थेन युज्यते ॥४/२९/१०-१४॥
A king who always treats friends appropriately according to the circumstances will have his kingdom, fame and valour thrive. A king whose treasury, punishment, friends and his own self are properly gathered enjoys the greatness of kingdom. Therefore being endowed with good conduct and staying in the fault-free path, you should do what is expected for the sake of your friend. One who undertakes to labour for the sake of a friend leaving other jobs and with enthusiasm will never be obstructed by failures. One who attends to friends' works too late will not be successful even with great efforts.

कच्चिन्नदीनः संभ्रान्तः कार्येषु च न मुह्यति ।
कच्चित् पुरुषकार्याणि कुरुते नृपतेः सुतः ॥
द्विविधं त्रिविधोपायमुपायमपि सेवते ।
विजिगीषुः सुहृत्कच्चिन्मित्रेषु च परन्तपः ॥
कच्चिन्मित्राणि लभतेऽमित्रैश्चाप्यभिगम्यते ।
कच्चित् कल्याणमित्रश्च मित्रैश्चापि पुरस्कृतः ॥
कच्चिदाशास्ति देवानां प्रसादं पार्थिवात्मजः ।
कच्चित् पुरुषकारं च दैवं च प्रतिपद्यते ॥५/३६/१६-१९॥
I hope he does not stumble in his works having become excited and low in spirit. I hope the prince attends to his duties and with a desire to win follows the two-fold plans of conciliation and gift to gain friends and three-fold plans of gift, punishment and sowing dissension to destroy enemies. I hope he has friends and is sought after even by enemies. I hope he has friends who wish him well and is respected by them. I hope the prince seeks the favour of Gods. I hope he does what needs to be done at the same time seeking the favour of Gods.

विद्यास्वभिविनीतो यो राजा राजनयानुगः ।
स शास्ति चिरमैश्वर्यमरींश्च कुरुते वशे ॥
सन्दधानो हि कालेन विगृह्णंश्चारिभिः सह ।
स्वपक्षवर्धनं कुर्वन् महदैश्वर्यमश्नुते ॥
हीयमानेन कर्तव्यो राज्ञा सन्धिः समेन च ।
न शत्रुमवमन्येत ज्यायान् कुर्वीत विग्रहम् ॥६/३५/-९॥
A king who follows the royal conduct and who is well versed in various fields of knowledge rules for long and commands over wealth and brings enemies under his control. One who interacts with enemies either through conflict or compromise depending on circumstances simultaneously strengthening his own side enjoys great wealth. A king who is getting weakened or who is of the same strength as the enemy should go for a compromise. Enemy should never be neglected and a strong king should wage war.

यः पश्चात् पूर्वकार्याणि कुर्यादैश्वर्यमास्थितः ।
पूर्वं चापरकार्याणि न स वेद नयानयौ ॥
देशकालविहीनानि कर्माणि विपरीतवत् ।
क्रियमाणानि दुष्यन्ति हवींष्यप्रयतेष्विव ॥
त्रयाणां पञ्चधा योगं कर्मणां यः प्रपश्यति ।
सचिवैः समयं कृत्वा स सभ्ये वर्तते पथि ॥
यथागमं च यो राजा समयं विचिकीर्षति ।
बुध्यते सचिवान् बुद्ध्या सुहृदश्चानुपश्यति ॥
धर्ममर्थं च कामम् च सर्वान् वा रक्षसां पते ।
भजेत पुरुषः काले त्रीणि द्वन्द्वानि वा पुनः ॥
A wealthy king who does jobs which should have been done earlier and does jobs which should be done later does not know what is proper and what is improper. Works done without regard to their proper time and place in a topsy turvy manner lead to grief like oblations made to fires which are not consecrated. One who consults with his ministers and friends in time without deviating from the tenets of kingship and understands three ways of action, the most desirable, medium and least desirable and the five components associated with an action is indeed on the right path. A person should indulge in dharma (righteous living), artha (acquiring wealth), kama (enjoying life) at their due time either singly or in twos depending on the time of the day. [Three ways of action are 1. attacking the enemy knowing that he is weaker than self, the most desirable action (उत्तम); 2. trying to come to a compromise knowing that the enemy is as strong as self, the medium type of action (मध्यम); 3. trying to appease the enemy through gifts and surrender knowing that he is much stronger than self, the least desirable action (अधम). The five components of action are planning (आरम्भोपाय), collecting manpower and money (पुरुषद्रव्यसम्पत्), taking account of place and time (देशकालविभाग), averting mishaps (विनिपातप्रतीकार), attaining success (कार्यसिद्धि). Desirable time of the day for action oriented to dharma artha and kama are morning, afternoon and night respectively.]

त्रिषु चैतेषु यच्छ्रेष्टं श्रुत्वा तन्नावबुध्यते ।
राजा राजमात्रो वा व्यर्थं तस्य बहुश्रुतम् ॥
उपप्रदानं सान्त्वं वा भेदं काले च विक्रमम् ।
योगं च रक्षसां श्रेष्ठ तावुभौ च नयानयौ ॥
काले धर्मार्थकामान् यः संमत्र्य सचिवैः सह ।
निषेवेतात्मवान् लोके न स व्यसनमाप्नुयात् ॥
हितानुबन्धमालोच्य कार्याकार्यमिहात्मनः ।
राजा सहार्थतत्त्वज्ञैः सचिवैः स हि जीवति ॥
अनभिज्ञाय शास्त्रार्थान् पुरुषाः पशुबुद्धयः ।
प्रागल्भ्याद्वक्तुमिच्छन्ति मन्त्रेष्वभ्यन्तरीकृताः ॥
A king or a king's counsellor who does not understand even when told which is the best among the three has all his knowledge in vain. O the best among rakshasas, a king who properly employs gifting, diplomacy, sowing dissension or valour or their combinations in time and who attend to dharma,artha and kama appropriately after consultations with ministers does not come to grief. A king who consults with his ministers in the matter of what needs to be done and what should not be done for ones own benefit lives. Persons who are of low calibre like cattle and who have no knowledge of scriptures want to express themselves with audacity when given an opportunity for consultation.

अशास्त्रविदुषां तेषां न कार्यमहितं वचः ।
अर्थशास्त्रानभिज्ञानां विपुलां श्रियमिच्छताम् ॥
अहितं च हिताकारं धार्ष्ट्याज्जल्पन्ति ये नराः ।
अवेक्ष्य मन्त्रबाह्यास्ते कर्तव्याः कृत्यदूषणाः ॥
विनाशयन्तो भर्तारं सहिताः शत्रुभिर्बुधैः ।
विपरीतानि कृत्यानि कारयन्तीह मन्त्रिणः ॥
तान् भर्ता मित्रसङ्काशानमित्रान् मन्त्रनिर्णये ।
व्यवहारेण जानीयात् सचिवानुपसंहितान् ॥
चपलस्येह कृत्यानि सहसानुप्रधावतः ।
छिद्रमन्ये प्रपद्यन्ते क्रौञ्चस्य खमिव द्विजाः ॥
यो हि शत्रुमविज्ञाय नात्मानमभिरक्षति ।
अवाप्नोति हि सोऽनर्थान् स्थानाच्च व्यवरोप्यते ॥६/६३/-२०॥
The words of those who do not have a command over scriptures are not beneficial and should not be followed. Those who audaciously advise wrongly in the garb of giving beneficial advice should be kept away from consultations. Such ministers along with intelligent enemies destroy their master by getting wrong things done. The master has to recognize such unfriendly persons who act like friends among his ministers during discussions. They try to find loop holes in your hasty actions just like birds find a way out to the sky in Krauncha mountain. One who does not understand his enemy and does not take care of himself comes to grief and will soon be displaced from his position.
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