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Saturday, May 12, 2012

The World of Valmiki-23

The World of Valmiki-23
 
Minister
विद्याविनीता ह्रीमन्तः कुशला नियतेन्द्रियाः ।
श्रीमन्तश्च महात्मानः शास्त्रज्ञा दृढविक्रमाः ॥
कीर्तिमन्तः प्रणिहिता यथावचनकारिणः ।
तेजःक्षमायशःप्राप्ताः स्मितपूर्वाभिभाषिणः ।
क्रोधात् कामार्थहेतोर्वा न ब्रूयुरनृतं वचः ॥
तेषामविदितम् किञ्चित् स्वेषु नास्ति परेषु वा ।
क्रियमाणं कृतं वापि चारेणापि चिकीर्षितम् ॥
कुशला व्यवहारेषु सौहृदेषु परीक्षिताः ।
प्राप्तकालं तु ते दण्डं धारयेयुः सुतेष्वपि ॥
They are humble because of their learning. They are modest, skilled and have their senses under control. They are wealthy, well versed in various fields of knowledge and firm in their valour. They are famed, cautious and keep their promises. They are endowed with radiance, forbearance and fame. Their speech is preceded by their smile and they do not utter a lie on account of anger, lust or wealth. There is nothing they are not aware of either on their own side or on the side of the enemy, things already done or presently being done or anything to be got done through a spy. They are skilled in matters of commerce and choose friends after proper scrutiny. They impose due punishments even on their own sons.

कोशसङ्ग्रहणे युक्ता बलस्य च परिग्रहे ।
अहितं वापि पुरुषं न विहिंस्युरदूषकम् ॥
वीराश्च नियतोत्साहा राजशास्त्रमनुष्ठिताः ।
शुचीनां रक्षितारश्च नित्यं विषयवासिनाम् ॥
ब्रह्मक्षत्रमहिंसन्तः ते कोशं समपूरयन् ।
सुतीक्ष्णदण्डाः संप्रेक्ष्य पुरुषस्य बलाबलम् ॥
शुचीनामेकबुद्धीनां सर्वेषां संप्रजानताम् ।
नासीत् पुरे वा राष्ट्रे वा मृषावादी नरः क्वचित् ॥१//-१२॥
They are engaged in collecting money for the treasury and strengthening the army. They do not trouble even an unfriendly person if he has not committed any crime. They are brave, have steady enthusiasm and follow the tenets of governance. They protect the subjects of clean conduct. They filled the treasury without troubling Brahmins and kshatriyas. Discerning the pros and cons they award due punishment. Governed by such ministers who were honest and single mindedly devoted and who were knowledgeable there was not a single person either in the city or country who told lies.

सुवाससः सुवेषाश्च ते च सर्वे सुशीलिनः ।
हितार्थं च नरेन्द्रस्य जाग्रतो नयचक्षुषा ॥
गुरौ गुणगृहीताश्च प्रख्याताश्च पराक्रमे ।
विदेशेष्वपि विज्ञाताः सर्वतो बुद्धिनिश्चयात् ॥
सन्धिविग्रहतत्त्वज्ञाः प्रकृत्या सम्पदान्विताः ।
मन्त्रसंवरणे शक्ताः शक्ताः सूक्ष्मासु बुद्धिषु ॥
नीतिशास्त्रविशेषज्ञाः सततं प्रियवादिनः ॥१//१४-१७॥
They wore nice clothes and dressed elegantly. They were well mannered and were vigilant always with the eyes of law in order to do what is beneficial to the king. They valued the good advice of elders and were famous for their valour. They were well known even outside the kingdom for their all-round brilliance. They knew the principles of truce and warfare. They were by nature rich. They knew how to protect the secrecy of their plans. They had the ability to reason deeply. They were specialists in political science and always spoke in a pleasant manner.  

संपृष्टेन तु वक्तव्यं सचिवेन विपश्चिता ।
उद्यताञ्जलिना राज्ञे य इच्छेद्भूतिमात्मनः ॥
वाक्यमप्रतिकूलं तु मृदुपूर्वं हितं शुभम् ।
उपचारेण युक्तं च वक्तव्यो वसुधाधिपः ॥
सावमर्दं तु यद्वाक्यं मारीच हितमुच्यते ।
नाभिनन्दति तद्राजा मानार्हो मानवर्जितम् ॥३/४०/-११॥
If a scholarly minister (secretary) wants to succeed, he should talk only when asked by the king, with folded hands raised. He has to speak to the king without contradicting, softly and with entreaties what is beneficial and augurs well for the king. O Maricha, a king who values his self respect will not appreciate any thing beneficial told harshly without valuing self respect.

वध्याः खलु न हन्यन्ते सचिवास्तव रावण ।
ये त्वामुत्पथमारूढं न निगृह्णन्ति सर्वशः ॥
अमात्यैः कामवृत्तो हि राजा कापथमाश्रितः ।
निग्राह्यः सर्वथा सद्भिः स निग्राह्यो न गृह्यसे ॥
धर्ममर्थं च कामं च यशश्च जयतां वर ।
स्वामिप्रसादात् सचिवाः प्राप्नुवन्ति निशाचर ॥
विपर्यये तु तत्सर्वं व्यर्थं भवति रावण ।
व्यसनं स्वामिवैगुण्यात् प्राप्नुवन्तीतरे जनाः ॥
राजमूलो हि धर्मश्च जयश्च जयतां वर ।
तस्मात् सर्वास्ववस्थासु रक्षितव्या नराधिपाः ॥
राज्यं पालयितुं शक्यं न तीक्ष्णेन निशाचर ।
न चापि प्रतिकूलेन नाविनीतेन राक्षस ॥
ये तीक्ष्णमन्त्राः सचिवा भज्यन्ते सह तेन वै ।
विषमे तुरगाः शीघ्रा मन्दसारथयो यथा ॥३/४१/-१२॥
Ravana, your ministers who do not control you for having gone astray deserve to be killed but are not killed. Good ministers should control a king who has taken to bad ways. You who should be controlled are not being controlled. O rakshasa, the great among the victorious, ministers get their need for dharma, wealth, sensual cravings and fame fulfilled by the favours of the king. If things go wrong all that becomes useless. Because of the master's failings others get into difficulties. Dharma and victory originate from the king. Therefore kings have to be protected under all circumstances. O rakshasa, a cruel, adversarial and arrogant king cannot control a nation. Ministers who advise harsh steps get destroyed along with the king like the fast horses along with a dull charioteer on an uneven ground.


यावद्धि केशग्रहणात् सुहृद्भिः
समेत्य सर्वैः परिपूर्णकामैः ।
निगृह्य राजा परिरक्षितव्यो
भूतैर्यथा भीमबलैर्गृहीतः ॥६/१४/१९॥
Friends who have got all their desires fulfilled (by the munificence of the king) should act together to restrain a king even to the extent of holding him by his hair in the manner a person seized by a spirit is restrained by others.

परस्य वीर्यं स्वबलं च बुद्ध्वा
स्थानं क्षयं चैव तथैव् वृद्धिम् ।
तथा स्वपक्षेऽप्यनुसृत्य बुद्ध्या
वदेत् क्षमं स्वामिहितं स मन्त्री ॥६/१४/२२॥
He indeed is a minister who advises what is best and possible for the master after examining the capabilities of the enemy and ones own army and examining the growth, steady state and decay of the two sides.

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