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Monday, October 17, 2011

Subhashita-kaustubha (27-30)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (२७-३०)
विधीयते विस्मयो नः प्रतिपन्नगुणादिभिः ।
अच्छप्रत्ययसंयुक्तैः वृद्धैः कैश्चिद्विलक्षणैः ॥ २७ ॥
We are surprised by some elderly persons who are endowed with good qualities and who have a spotless reputation. [As in earlier verses, this has an alternative meaning. It is associated with some aspect of grammar, which is unfortunately obscure to the translator. Words that belong to the class वृद्ध {words which have undergone वृद्धि} would not have undergone गुण operation. वृद्ध words also are associated with छ प्रत्यय. The peculiarity seen by the poet is that वृद्ध associated with छ प्रत्यय are also associated with गुण, which is not normally the case!   The commentator quotes two Panini Sutra’s : वृद्धिर्यस्याचामादिः तद्वृद्धम् and वृद्धाच्छः.]


परसंयोगमहिमा लघोरपि यतः स्वतः ।
गुरुत्वमावहत्येव प्रमाणं तस्य पाणिनिः ॥ २८ ॥
Even if a person by himself is of no consequence (लघु), he attains eminence (गुरुत्वम्) by virtue of his association with the mighty (पर). Panini is the authority for this. Panini declares that a syllable which is लघु by itself becomes गुरु when followed by a conjunct consonant (परसंयोग)-> an important rule in Sanskrit prosody. [The poet manages to bring in similarity between an aspect of grammar and a statement of worldly value by a clever use of words with double meanings.]  

न वचस्यनृताश्रयस्सतां युवतावेव परस्य केवलम् ।
न च मन्युरपक्रियोदये प्रथते किन्तु वसन्त सम्भवे ॥ २९ ॥

For the virtuous, अनृत+आश्रयः= dependence on untruth does not exist in their words, but अ+नृ-ता+आश्रयः= attitude of not being manly exists towards others’ damsels. मन्यु=anger does not manifest itself in the event of hurt caused by others, but मन्यु= a type of sacrifice is performed at the advent of spring. [The virtuous do not tell untruth, their attitude to others’ women is as if they do not have manhood and they do not get angry if they are hurt by others. The poet has transformed that simple statement in to a puzzle by using words अनृताश्रय and मन्यु which have double meanings. मन्यु is the name of a sacrifice which is performed during spring.]

जगतामुपकारका जना
जलसङ्गाच्चकितास्तमोहराः ।
अनला इव तर्पयन्त्यमी
हविषामर्पणतो बुधोत्तमान् ॥ ३० ॥
Good persons are like fire. Both are helpful to the world. They are afraid of जड/जल (the dull/ water). They dispel तमस् (ignorance/darkness). Through supply of हविस् ( ghee/ oblations) they please बुधोत्तम s (the best of scholars/ the divine beings). [The poet displays his fondness for श्लेष.]
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