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Saturday, November 5, 2011

Subhashita kaustubha (44-50)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (४४-५०)
प्रजानां क्रियते पीडा मलिनैर्लोकभीषणैः ।
खलोघैः शृङ्खलोघैश्च पतद्भिरपि पादयोः ॥ ४४ ॥
People are harassed by the groups of the wicked [खलौघैः], who are dirty [मलिनैः], who threaten people [लोकभीषणैः] even though they may be falling at ones feet. People are troubled by chains of shackles [शृङ्खलौघैः] which are dark [मलिनैः], which are fearsome to look at [लोकभीषणैः] even if they are falling on ones feet.


त्रेताद्विषः कृतघ्नाः शश्वद् द्वापरदूषणविहाराः ।
त्रियुगविमुखास्ततोऽमी खलाः कलावेव वर्धयन्ति रुचिम् ॥ ४५ ॥
The wicked nurture luster only in Kaliyug. They hate the the three sacred fires ( they hate tretaayug)(त्रेताद्विषः); they destroy those who have helped them (they destroy krutayug) [कृतघ्नाः]; they often take pleasure in denigrating others. (they wander around finding fault with dvapurayug)[शश्वद् वा अपरदूषणविहाराः, शश्वद् द्वापरदूषणविहाराः]. ( The three sacred fires दक्षिणाग्निः, गार्हपत्यः and आहवनीयः. To hate the three fires is to have disrespect for Vedic rites. Again the poet uses श्लेष to puzzle the reader. On a first reading the second meaning may not flash and the reader is puzzled. On a second reading it  may strike to please him )


अल्पत्वगाकृतीनां विगर्हितानां सदागतिं नुदताम् ।
पिशुनानां लशुनानां न सहन्ते गन्धमपि सन्तः ॥ ४६ ॥
Good persons do not like even the smell of back-biters and garlic. Back-biters and garlic have अल्पत्वगाकृति (अल्पत्वगा आकृति= a demeaning form, अल्पत्वक् आकृति= thin skinned); are condemned (विगर्हित); are सदागतिं नुदन्तः (सदा अगतिं नुदन्तः= always incite towards bad ways, सदागतिं नुदन्तः= leads to vaayu, one of the three body humours) [ Similarity between back-biters and garlic is brought out through clever use of श्लेष.]


सत्पथाच्छादनकरे सर्वतः पङ्कसङ्कुले ।
दुर्जनैः दुर्दिनैश्चैव जृम्भिते कस्सुखं चरेत् ॥ ४७ ॥
Who can lead life with comfort when the wicked, who obstruct good conduct [सत्पथ आच्छादनकरे] and are full of faults [पङ्कसङ्कुले] are thriving? Who can move around with ease when cloudy days which cover the skies [सत्पथ=sky] and cause slough all around [पङ्कसङ्कुले] are increasing?

अनल्पकन्धरायां हि सर्वज्ञस्यापि दारुणाः ।
आरोपयन्ति मालिन्यं काकोला इव ते खलाः ॥ ४८ ॥
On this earth [धरायाम्] the wicked who are ruthless attribute numerous [अनल्पकम्] faults even to an all-knowing person like poison which blackens the broad neck [अनल्पकन्धरा] of the omniscient Siva. (Reference is to the poison kaalakoota which Siva drank and which caused blackening of his neck.)


सलाघवा चापलतोषिता सा
ज्याभारमात्रा विरसाशरालिः ।
कर्णान्तनीतेषु परोरुधर्म-
गुणेषु या लक्ष्यविघर्षणोत्का ॥ ४९ ॥
Demons(the wicked)[आशर आवलिः] are there only as a burden for the earth [ज्या भार मात्रा] and they are of light weight and rejoice in rash acts [चापल तोषिता] and are tasteless. They are intent on targeting to destroy the good qualities of others which they come to know about.
A parallel meaning also appears as follows: The row of arrows [शर आवलिः] which rests on the bow [चाप लता उषिता] and which acts as a weight to the string [ज्या भार मात्रा] is intent on targeting to destroy the bow string of the enemy.

संशयकरम्बितधियस्सदसि परिच्छेदसाहसपुरोगाः ।
गर्जन्त्यव्युत्पन्नाः नानागमवेत्तृकुशलताकलनात् ॥ ५० ॥
Persons lacking scholarship with their minds confused with doubt and not having acquired the skills of those who are learned in various scriptures roar in the assembly of scholars by coming forward hastily in the determination of debate.
A second meaning appears as a shadow as follows: Goats [अवि उत्पन्नाः] with hesitation go forward to cut hastily and not getting the darbha grass [कुश लता] of the scholars in the sacrifice bleat. (In effect through श्लेष the poet brings out similarity between those who lack scholarship but still pretend to be so and take part in debates and goats which come to the sacrificial altar to snatch darbha grass.
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