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Tuesday, November 1, 2011

Subhashita kaustubha (39-43)

सुभाषितकौस्तुभः (३९-४३)
अथ दुर्जनपद्धतिः
Now the section on the wicked.

अखिलेष्वपि हन्त निर्घृणानाम्
अनुकूलेष्वपि विप्रलम्भकानाम् ।
अपथे चरतां नृणां प्रचारान्
अभिधातुं त्रपते सरस्वती मे ॥ ३९ ॥
My speech hesitates to discuss the ways of those persons who stray from the right way, who are unkind to one and all and who deceive even those who are favourable to them.

अल्पीयो विभवागमश्रवणतोऽप्याकाशमुत्पश्यताम्
हन्त प्रस्मरतां तनूमपि नृपद्वाराग्रचारादपि ।
प्रज्ञालेशलवाणुतोऽपि विबुधावज्ञाकृतामुच्चकैः
दुष्टानामिह दृष्टिरप्युदितये बंहीयसामंहसाम् ॥ ४० ॥
The wicked start looking at the skies even at the news of  getting some wealth. They forget themselves even if they were to move around the gates of the palace. Even with their minutest of intelligence they loudly make fun of the learned. Even their very sight leads to enhancement of sins.

दुर्जन्तुभिराक्रान्तो गर्जन् कटु गोत्रगोपनसमर्थः ।
जलधी राजत्गर्वः कुम्भीपाकोदरे परिभ्रमति ॥ ४१ ॥
The ocean(जलधिः) which is inhabited by dangerous living beings, which roars loudly, which is capable of hiding mountains (गोत्र-गोपन-समर्थः) and which has a royal pride (finally) wanders inside the abdomen of Agastya (कुम्भी+पाक=कुम्भजातः=अगस्त्यः).
A second meaning suggested is as follows: the dull-headed person(जडधी) who is surrounded by persons of vice, who is loud-mouthed and who is good in hiding his family background (गोत्र-गोपन-समर्थः) (finally) ends up revolving in the hell of Kumbhipaaka. [The second meaning is topical where as the first one arises out of apt choice of double-meaning words. This alludes to the Puranic story of Agastya drinking the ocean, resulting in the ocean wandering in his abdomen. Kumbhipaaka is a section of hell where the condemned are baked like in a potter’s kiln. जलधीराजत् गर्वः can be split as जलधिः+राजत्गर्वः or जडधी +राजत्गर्वः. ल and are considered equivalent.]

अल्पं मध्यममुच्चैराश्रयतामतनुकलहमुखराणाम् ।
बन्धं कुर्युः सुदृशो हन्त खलानां च मेखलानां च ॥ ४२ ॥
The wise [सुदृशः] restrain the wicked who take refuge in the lowly, the middle class and the nobility [ अल्पं मध्यमम् उच्चैः आश्रयताम्] and who are very vocal in quarrelling. Ladies with lovely eyes [ सुदृशः] bind the girdle which closely hug the thin middle [अल्पं मध्यममुच्चैः आश्रयताम्] and which make noise at the time of love play [ अतनु-कलह-मुखराणाम्]. [Here is a variant in the use of श्लेष. The second part has no particular reference to the topic and just hangs there. अतनु=अनङ्ग]

उष्णाःशश्वदमङ्गलकाष्ठारूढाः महद्भिरस्पृश्याः ।
कर्म भजन्तोऽनुचितं खलाः श्मशानाग्निसमशीलाः ॥ ४३ ॥
The wicked are haughty [उष्णाः], constantly occupying an inauspicious stance [अमङ्गलकाष्ठारूढाः] and are kept away by the pious [महद्भिरस्पृश्याः] and are by nature like the cemetery fires which are hot [उष्णाः], which are all the time riding on the inauspicious fire wood [अमङ्गल-काष्ठ-आरूढाः] and which are not touched by the sacred [महद्भिरस्पृश्याः]. [An example of श्लेष elegantly blended  with उपमा ] 
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