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Saturday, April 21, 2012

The World of Valmiki-20

The World of Valmiki-20

3.0 Statecraft
Administration

King and Leader
सङ्ग्रामात् पुनरागम्य कुञ्जरेण रथेन वा ।
पौरान् स्वजनवन्नित्यं कुशलं परिपृच्छति ॥
पुत्रेष्वग्निषु दारेषु प्रेष्यशिष्यगणेषु च ।
निखिलेनानुपूर्व्याच्च पिता पुत्रानिवौरसान् ॥
शुश्रूषन्ते च वः शिष्याः कच्चित् कर्मसु दंशिताः ।
इति नः पुरुषव्याघ्रः सदा रामोऽभिभाषते ॥
व्यसनेषु मनुष्याणां भृशं भवति दुःखितः ।
उत्सवेषु च सर्वेषु पितेव परितुष्यति ॥
सत्यवादी महेष्वासो वृद्धसेवी जितेन्द्रियः ।
स्मितपूर्वाभिभाषी च धर्मं सर्वात्मना श्रितः ॥
सम्यग्योक्ता श्रेयसां च न विगृह्यकथारुचिः ।
उत्तरोत्तरयुक्तौ च वक्ता वाचस्पतिर्यथा ॥२//३९-४४॥
(Rama), while returning from a battle riding an elephant or in a chariot, he asks the citizens (he meets on the way)  in detail and from the beginning their welfare about their children, their sacrificial fires, their wives, their errand-runners and their disciples as if they are his kith. He, a tiger among men, asks us often, "Do your disciples serve you well and are they hurt (by bites etc.) while attending to their duties?". He becomes extremely sad when he learns of peoples' difficulties. Like a father he rejoices at all their festivities. He speaks truth, is a fine archer, attends to the old, has control over his senses, smiles before he speaks and follows dharma from his heart. He accomplishes beneficial acts and does not relish heated arguments. Like Brihaspati he is extremely good in repartee.

नास्य क्रोधः प्रसादश्च निरर्थोऽस्ति कदाचन ।
हन्त्येव नियमाद्वध्यान् न वध्ये न च कुप्यति ॥
युनक्त्यर्थैः प्रहृष्टश्च तमसौ यत्र तुष्यति ॥२//४७-४८॥
Neither his anger nor his benevolence goes waste any time. He does destroy those who ought to be destroyed and is never angry at a person who does not deserve to be destroyed. If he is pleased with a person he bestows him with riches.

कच्चिद्विनयसंपन्नः कुलपुत्रो बहुश्रुतः ।
अनसूयुरनुद्रष्टा सत्कृतस्ते पुरोहितः ॥
कच्चिदग्निषु ते युक्तो विधिज्ञो मतिमानृजुः ।
हुतं च होष्यमाणम् च काले वेदयते सदा ॥
कच्चिद्देवान् पितॄन मातॄः गुरून् पितृसमानपि ।
वृद्धांश्च तात वैद्यांश्च ब्राह्मणांश्चाभिमन्यसे ॥
इष्वस्त्रवरसंपन्नं अर्थशास्त्रविशारदम् ।
सुधन्वानमुपाध्यायं कच्चित्त्वं तात मन्यसे ॥
कच्चिदात्मसमाः शूराः श्रुतवन्तो जितेन्द्रियाः । 
कुलीनाश्चेङ्गितज्ञाश्च कृतास्ते तात मन्त्रिणः ॥
Do you honour your priest (son of Vasishtha), who is endowed with humility, who is well read, who is not jealous of others and who is skilled in sacred rites? Have you assigned an intelligent and straight forward person who knows all the rites, who knows in time what has been offered to the fire and what is being offered to the fire, to attend to your sacred fires? Do you respect the divine beings, fathers, mothers, teachers who are equivalent to fathers, old men, physicians and Brahmins? Do you respect your teacher who is well versed in archery and who is an expert in matters of finance? Have you engaged people as brave as yourself, well versed in the Vedas, who have a good control over their senses, who have a good heritage and who understand the intentions behind facial expressions as your counselors?

मन्त्रो विजयमूलं हि राज्ञां भवति राघव ।
सुसंवृत्तो मन्त्रधरैरमात्यैः शास्त्रकोविदैः ॥
कच्चिन्निद्रावशं नैषीः कच्चित्काले प्रबुध्यसे ।
कच्चिच्चापररात्रेषु चिन्तयस्यर्थनैपुणम् ॥
काच्चिन्मन्त्रयसे नैकः कच्चिन्न बहुभिः सह ।
कच्चित्ते मन्त्रितो मन्त्रो राष्ट्रं न परिधावति ॥
कच्चिदर्थं विनिश्चित्य लघुमूलं महोदयम् ।
क्षिप्रमारभसे कर्तुं न दीर्घ्यसि राघव ॥
कच्चित्ते सुकृतान्येव कृतरूपाणि वा पुनः ।
विदुस्ते सर्वकार्याणि न कर्तव्यानि पार्थिवाः ॥
O, scion of Raghu, consultations are at the root of victory for kings. Are you surrounded by competent ministers who know how to hold consultations? I hope you do not sleep excessively and you get up well in time. I hope you think about finance matters late in the night. I hope you do not hold consultations with only one person nor with too many persons. I hope your secret consultations do not spread all over the state. After deciding what to do that starts in a small way bur yields big results, I hope you start quickly and do not delay the matter. I hope your vassals come to know of an action only when it is completed or is under completion and not before it is started.

कच्चिन्न तर्कैर्युक्त्या वा ये चाप्यपरिकीर्तिताः ।
त्वया वा तव वामात्यैः बुध्यते तात मन्त्रितम् ॥
कच्चित्सहस्रान् मूर्खाणां एकमिच्छसि पण्डितम् ।
पण्डितो ह्यर्थकृछ्रेषु कुर्यान्निःश्रेयसं महत् ॥
सहस्राण्यपि मूर्खानां यद्युपास्ते महीपतिः ।
अथवाप्ययुतान्येव नास्ति तेषु सहायता ॥
एकोऽप्यमात्यो मेधावी शूरो दक्षो विचक्षणः ।
राजानम् राजपुत्रं वा प्रापयेन्महतीं श्रियम् ॥
कच्चिन्मुख्या महत्स्वेव मध्यमेषु च मध्यमाः ।
जघन्यास्तु जघन्येषु भृत्याः कर्मसु योजिताः ॥
अमात्यानुपधातीतान् पितृपैतामहान् शुचीन् ।
श्रेष्ठान् श्रेष्ठेषु कच्चित्त्वं नियोजयसि कर्मसु ॥
I hope what you or your ministers have planned but has not been announced will not be known to others either through reasoning or through trickery. I hope you prefer one wise person to thousands of fools. In times of financial difficulties, one wise person can bring great glory. If a king has thousands, nay ten thousands of fools, no help is rendered by them. One minister who is intelligent, brave, efficient and capable can bring to the king or to the prince great wealth. I hope you entrust very important works to the best persons, works of medium importance to persons of medium calibre and the least important works to persons of low calibre. I hope you employ the best ministers who have passed tests of loyalty, who are of clean conduct and who are attached to us over generations for the best jobs.   

कच्चिन्नोग्रेण दण्डेन भृशमुद्वेजिताः प्रजाः ।
राष्ट्रे तवानुजानन्ति मन्त्रिणः कैकयीसुत ॥
कच्चित्त्वां नावजानन्ति याजकाः पतितं यथा ।
उग्रप्रतिग्रहीतारं कामयानमिव स्त्रियः ॥
उपायकुशलं वैद्यं भृत्यसन्दूषणे रतम् ।
शूरमैश्वर्यकामं च यो न हन्ति स वध्यते ॥
कच्चिद्धृष्टश्च शूरश्च मतिमान् धृतिमान् शुचिः ।
कुलीनश्चानुरक्तश्च दक्षः सेनापतिः कृतः ॥
बलवन्तश्च कच्चित्ते मुख्या युद्धविशारदाः ।
दृष्टापदाना विक्रान्ताः त्वया सत्कृत्य मानिताः ॥
O son of Kaikeyi, I hope enraged by severity of punishment, citizens do not show disrespect to your ministers in the country. I hope you are not despised for being too harsh in collecting taxes just as those engaged in sacrificial rites despise a fallen person or like women who despise lustful men who employ force. One who does not destroy a person who is well versed in diplomacy, who is clever and engages in finding faults with servants, who is brave and seeks wealth gets destroyed. I hope you have employed a person who is courageous, confident, intelligent, resolute, has integrity, is from a good family, is devoted to you and efficient as the Chief of the army. I hope your chiefs are of proven ability, skilled in warfare, brave and are suitably honoured by you.

कच्चिद्बलस्य भक्तं च वेतनं च यथोचितम् ।
सम्प्राप्तकालं दातव्यं ददासि न विलम्बसे ॥
कालातिक्रमाणाच्चैव भक्तवेतनयोर्भृताः ।
भर्तुः कुप्यन्ति दुष्यन्ति सोऽनर्थः सुमहान् स्मृतः ॥
कच्चित्सर्वेऽनुरक्तास्त्वां कुलपुत्राः प्रधानतः ।
कच्चित्प्राणान्स्तवार्थेषु सन्त्यजन्ति समाहिताः ॥
कच्चिज्जानपदो विद्वान् दक्षिणः प्रतिभानवान् ।
यथोक्तवादी दूतस्ते कृतो भरत पण्डितः ॥
कच्चिदष्टादशेऽन्येषु स्वलक्षे दशपञ्च च ।
त्रिभिस्त्रिभिरविज्ञातैः वेत्ति तीर्थानि चारकैः ॥
I hope you pay the soldiers their due share and salary in time and do not delay. If payment is delayed those who serve get enraged and hate you and that can be a great calamity. I hope all the nobles are devoted to you and are willing to lay down their lives for your sake. Bharata, I hope you have employed an intelligent and smart well-read native who is courteous and who correctly conveys the communication as your messenger. I hope you get to know the happenings in respect of 18 posts of your enemies and 15 posts of your side through a pair of three spies unknown to each other. [ According to Govindaraja, the eighteen posts are मन्त्रि (Counsellor), पुरोहित (Chief priest), युवराज (Crown Prince), सेनापति (Chief of the army), दौवारिक (In charge of palace security) , अन्तर्वंशिक (In charge of harem), कारागाराधिकृत (Jail superintendent), अर्थसञ्चयकृत् ( In charge of revenue collection), कार्यनियोजक ( In charge of publicity), प्राड्विवाक ( Prosecutor), सेनानायक ( pay disburser of the army), नगराध्यक्ष (Mayor), कर्मान्तिक (Pay disburser for the Civil departments), सभ्य ( Assembly manager), धर्माध्यक्ष (Civil Judge), दण्डपाल (Magistrate), दुर्गपाल ( Superintendent of hills and forests), राष्ट्रान्तपाल (Border security). The first 3 posts namely that of Counselor, Chief Priest and Crown Prince of ones own side are excluded from surveillance.] 
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